Taped Problems

Study: Krohn, Skinner, Fuller, & Greear (2012)

Krohn, K. R., Skinner, C.H., Fuller, E. J., & Greear, C. (2012). Using a taped intervention to improve kindergarten students’ number identification. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 437-441.
Descriptive Information Usage Acquisition and Cost Program Specifications and Requirements Training

Taped Problems is a fluency-building intervention typically used to increase knowledge of math facts (addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division) or numerals. With Taped Problems, teachers first decide on a set of math facts for the student to practice. The teacher makes a worksheet with the facts and a blank space for the fact answer. The teacher then creates an audio recording where each fact is read aloud. The teacher pauses for a brief delay (e.g., 1-5 seconds). Then, the teacher says the answer to the math fact. After the recording is created, the student listen to the recording. When the teacher pauses on the recording after saying a fact, the student is supposed to write the answer to the math fact during the pause. Then, the student’s answer is reviewed as the teacher on the recording states the answer. With Taped Problems, the brief delay on the recording may be altered to encourage more rapid or automatic response to the math fact.


The academic area of focus for Taped Problems is math.

Many research and practitioner articles have been published that discuss using Taped Problems to increase math fluency.

Taped Problems is a non-commercial intervention and, therefore does not have a formal pricing plan.


Teacher must understand how to create audio reecordings for Taped Problems. That is the only required training.


Participants: Unconvincing Evidence

Risk Status: Three students were Hispanic and received services from a teacher for English language learners who indicated that each had limited English language skills, typically spoke in short sentences, and relied heavily on nonverbal communication. The other participant was nominated for inclusion by his teacher, who felt that he might benefit from the small-group instruction in math. All four participants were referred due to difficulty with number identification.



Age / Grade



Socioeconomic Status

Disability Status

ELL Status

Other Relevant Descriptive Characteristics

Carlos K M Hispanic     Yes  
Anita K F Hispanic     Yes  
Cristina K F Hispanic     Yes  
David K M White     No  

Training of Instructors: The experimenter conducted all sessions. No information provided about the experimenter.

Design: Convincing Evidence

Does the study include three data points or sufficient number to document a stable performance within that phase? Yes

Is there opportunity for at least three demonstrations of experimental control? Yes

If the study is an alternating treatment design, are there five repetitions of the alternating sequence? Not applicable

If the study is a multiple baseline, is it concurrent? No

Fidelity of Implementation: Partially Convincing Evidence

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained: Interobserver agreement gathered on the assessments, but no fidelity of treatment of the intervention was reported.   

Provide documentation (i.e., in terms of numbers) of fidelity of treatment implementation: Not reported. 

Measures Targeted: Unconvincing Evidence

Measures Broader: Data Unavailable

Targeted  Measure Reliability Statistics Relevance to Program Focus Exposure to Related Content Among Control Group

Researcher-designed measure of numeral identification

Not reported

Directly related to Taped Problems



Broader Measure Reliability Statistics Relevance to Program Focus Exposure to Related Content Among Control Group






Number of Outcome Measures: 1 Math

Mean ES - Targeted: N/A

Mean ES - Broader: N/A

Effect Size:

Visual Analysis (Single Subject Design): Unconvincing Evidence

Description of the method of analyses used to determine whether the intervention condition improved relative to baseline phase (e.g. visual analysis, computation of change score, mean difference):

Based on visual inspection, “all four participants showed a clear increasing trend in number-identification accuracy following the application of Taped Problems. No overlapping data points were observed between conditions for students, with the exception of Cristina.

Results in terms of within and between phase patterns:

Disaggregated Data for Demographic Subgroups: No

Disaggregated Data for <20th Percentile: No

Administration Group Size: Individual

Duration of Intervention: 8-10 minutes, 5 times a week, 3 weeks

Minimum Interventionist Requirements: Training is not required

Reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA: No

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.


Evidence for ESSA

This program was not reviewed by Evidence for ESSA.

Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review: 0 studies