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Academic Intervention Tools Chart

This tools chart presents information about academic intervention programs. The following four tabs include information and ratings on the technical rigor of the studies:

  • Quality of Design & Results
  • Quality of Other Indicators
  • Intensity
  • Additional Research

The chart reviews studies about the intervention programs. As a result, you may see the intervention appear more than one time and receive different ratings.

Last updated: February 2019. Our tools charts have a new look! Click here for a brief summary of improvements we rolled out in June 2020.

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Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
NA   Not applicable
Mean ES
*The mean effect size includes at least one statistically significant individual effect size
A mean effect size could not be reported because at least one individual effect size could not be calculated
--No targeted (T) or broader (B) measures were submitted for this study

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Title Study Study Type Study Design Mean ES
(Targeted)
(Broader)
Disaggregated ES
Data Available
Visual Analysis Participants Fidelity of Implementation Targeted Measures Broader Measures No. of Outcome Measures Administration Group Size Duration of Intervention Minimum Interventionist Requirements Minimum Training Requirements Intervention Reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA Other Research Potentially Eligible for NCII Review
Achieve Intervention Tracey & Young (2004) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.09 (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence 7 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
45 minutes
2 times a week
20 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-2 days of training WWC 0
Burst:Reading Dubal et al. (2012) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.09* (T)
-- (B)
Demographic NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable

1 Prereading

6 Reading

Small group of students (4-6) 30 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training time varies; may be 8+ hours E-ESSA 0
Burst:Reading Pappas et al. (2015) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.16* (T)
0.13* (B)
<20th Percentile, Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

2 Prereading

16 Reading

Small group of students (4-6) 30 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training time varies; may be 8+ hours E-ESSA 0
Cover Copy Compare Becker et al. (2009) Single Case Unconvincing evidence NA None Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Cover Copy Compare Cieslar et al. (2008) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Cover Copy Compare Codding et al. (2007) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Cover Copy Compare Cressey & Ezbicki (2008) Group Design Unconvincing evidence -0.27 (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Cover Copy Compare Poff et al. (2012) Single Case Unconvincing evidence NA None Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Cover Copy Compare Poncy et al. (2007) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students
Small group of students
5 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 6
Early Numeracy Intervention Grade 1 Bryant et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.46* (T)
0.23* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 11 Math Small group of students (4-5) 25 minutes
3 times a week
19 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 0
Early Vocabulary Connections Nelson et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.60* (T)
† (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (3-6)
20 minutes
5 times a week
36 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 1
Enhanced Core Reading Instruction Fien et al. (2015); Smith et al. (2016) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.29* (T)
0.44* (B)
<20th Percentile NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 10 Reading Small group of students (3-5) 30 minutes
5 times a week
30 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2-3 days of training recommended E-ESSA 0
Failure Free Reading Torgesen et al. (2006) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.08 (T)
-0.03 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 14 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (2-6 )
45 minutes
5 times a week
4 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 0
Fast ForWord Language Series Miller et al. (1999) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.60* (T)
† (B)
<20th Percentile, Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence

2 Prereading

1 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
5 times a week
4 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 16
Fast ForWord Language Series Scientific Learning Corporation (2004) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.44 (T)
0.59 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 2 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
5 times a week
4 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 16
Fast ForWord Language Series Slattery (2003) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
† (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

1 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
5 times a week
4 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 16
focusMATH Intensive Intervention Styers & Baird-Wilkerson (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.23* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 15 Math Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
45 minutes
3 times a week
4 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required E-ESSA 0
Fraction Face-Off! (previously Fraction Challenge) Fuchs et al. (2012) Group Design Convincing evidence 1.04* (T)
0.89* (B)
<20th Percentile NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 4 Math Individual students
Small group of students (2-3)
30 minutes
3 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training WWC & E-ESSA 0
Fusion (Whole Number Foundations Level 1) Clarke et al. (2013) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.84* (T)
0.14 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Math Small group of students (3-5) 30 minutes
3 times a week
20 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC 0
Headsprout Huffstetter et al. (2010) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
0.90* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 2 Reading Individual students 20 minutes
3 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Headsprout Tyler et al. (2015) Group Design Unconvincing evidence † (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Reading Individual students 20 minutes
3 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Hot Math Tutoring Fuchs et al. (2008) Group Design Convincing evidence 1.15* (T)
0.60* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Math Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
20 minutes
3 times a week
13 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training plus follow up by school or district staff WWC & E-ESSA 0
Incremental Rehearsal Burns (2005) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 10 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 9
Incremental Rehearsal Burns (2007) Group Design Convincing evidence 1.45* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 10 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 9
Incremental Rehearsal Codding et al. (2010) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 2 Math Individual students 10 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 9
Incremental Rehearsal Matchett & Burns (2009) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Reading Individual students 10 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 9
Incremental Rehearsal Peterson et al. (2014) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Prereading Individual students 10 minutes
3 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 9
iRead Hamilton et al. (2016) Group Design Unconvincing evidence † (T)
†* (B)
Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (3-6)
20 minutes
5 times a week
36 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required; 1 day of training recommended E-ESSA 1
Learning Strategies Curriculum: Assignment Completion Strategy Hughes et al. (2002) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 7 Assignment completion Individual students
Small group of students (3 -5)
30 minutes
3 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
3 hours of training No 0
Learning Strategies Curriculum: Essay Test-Taking Strategy Therrien et al. (2009) Group Design Convincing evidence 1.64* (T)
†* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Essay writing Individual students
Small group of students (3-7)
45 minutes
4 times a week
2 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
3 hours of training No 4
Leveled Literacy Intervention System Ransford-Kaldon et al. (2010) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.74* (T)
0.22* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Reading

8 Prereading

Small group of students (3) 30 minutes
4 times a week
14 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required; 2-3 days of training recommended WWC & E-ESSA 0
Lexia Core5 Reading Macaruso & Rodman (2009) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.10 (T)
-0.08 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

5 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students
20 minutes
1 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Lexia Core5 Reading Macaruso & Rodman (2011) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.49* (T)
-0.28 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

6 Prereading

5 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students
20 minutes
1 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Lexia Core5 Reading Macaruso & Walker (2008) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -0.04 (T)
0.53* (B)
<20th Percentile NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Prereading

2 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students
20 minutes
1 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Lexia Core5 Reading Macaruso et al. (2006) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
0.47 (B)
Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

2 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students
20 minutes
1 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
Lexia Core5 Reading Schechter et al. (2015) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.35 (T)
-- (B)
Demographic NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
20 minutes
1 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 3
MATH 180 HMH (2014) Group Design Unconvincing evidence -- (T)
0.35* (B)
<20th Percentile, Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 1 Math Small group of students (12) 53 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2-3 days of training E-ESSA 2
Math Recovery Smith et al. (2007) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence 6 Math Individual students
Small group of students (3-4)
30 minutes
4 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 month PD course with onsite mentoring E-ESSA 0
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach Crews (2004) Group Design Unconvincing evidence -- (T)
† (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 6 Math Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
30 minutes
4 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training E-ESSA 0
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach Serido & Wilhelm (2006) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
0.26* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
30 minutes
4 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training E-ESSA 0
MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach Serido & Wilhelm (2008) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
0.04 (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence 6 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
20 minutes
4 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training E-ESSA 0
Number Rockets Fuchs et al. (2005) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.45* (T)
0.11 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 7 Math Individual students
Small group of students (2-3)
40 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training plus follow up by school or district staff E-ESSA 2
NumberShire Level 1 Fien et al. (2015); Smith et al. (2016) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.17* (T)
0.01 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 4 Math Individual students
Small group of students
15 minutes
4 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required E-ESSA 0
Pirate Math Individual Tutoring Fuchs et al. (2009) Group Design Convincing evidence 4.85* (T)
3.16* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 6 Math Individual students 20 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training E-ESSA 3
Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT) Swanson et al. (2017) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
† (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Reading

1 Social Studies

Small group of students (8-10) 45 minutes
5 times a week
36 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC & E-ESSA 8
QuickReads Vadasy & Sanders (2008) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.22 (T)
0.21* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 6 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (6)
15 minutes
3 times a week
28 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required; 3 hours of training recommended E-ESSA 2
READ 180 Universal Hamilton et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
0.07* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 9 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (5-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2 days of training WWC & E-ESSA 5
READ 180 Universal Kim et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
† (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence

2 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (5-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2 days of training WWC & E-ESSA 5
READ 180 Universal Lang et al. (2009) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
0.03* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 1 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (5-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2 days of training WWC & E-ESSA 5
READ 180 Universal Scholastic Research (2008); White & Haslam (2005a); White & Haslam (2005b) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
†* (B)
Demographic NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (5-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2 days of training WWC & E-ESSA 5
READ 180 Universal Sprague et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
0.20* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 2 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (5-6)
90 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
2 days of training WWC & E-ESSA 5
Read Aloud Small-Group Curriculum Fien et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
† (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Reading Small group of students (2-5) 20 minutes
4 times a week
9 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training No 1
Read Naturally Christ & Davie (2009) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
-0.07 (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 7 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
3 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training WWC & E-ESSA 6
Read Naturally Heistad (2005) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
3 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training WWC & E-ESSA 6
Read Naturally Tucker & Jones (2010) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.71 (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 3 Reading Individual students
Small group of students
30 minutes
3 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 day of training WWC & E-ESSA 6
Read Right Scott et al. (2010) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
0.19* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 5 Reading Individual students
Small group of students (5)
40 minutes
2 times a week
9 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Hands-on training (students present) for 7 weeks E-ESSA 0
Reading for All Learners Callow-Heusser & Sanborn (2016) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.22 (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable

2 Prereading

3 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students (2-6)
20 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 1
Reading Plus Reutzel et al. (2012) Group Design Unconvincing evidence -- (T)
0.68* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 2 Reading Individual students 45 minutes
4 times a week
16 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 1
Reading Recovery Center et al. (1995) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 1.45* (T)
0.90* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence

1 Prereading

7 Reading

Individual students 30 minutes
5 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
An academic year of training with university credit WWC & E-ESSA 3
Reading Recovery Iversen & Tunmer (1993) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 4.11* (T)
†* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

6 Prereading

4 Reading

Individual students 30 minutes
5 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
An academic year of training with university credit WWC & E-ESSA 3
Reading Recovery May et al. (2016) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
†* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 4 Reading Individual students 30 minutes
5 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
An academic year of training with university credit WWC & E-ESSA 3
Reading Recovery Schwartz (2005) Group Design Convincing evidence 1.13* (T)
† (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

3 Prereading

7 Reading

Individual students 30 minutes
5 times a week
12 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
An academic year of training with university credit WWC & E-ESSA 3
Reflex Rudel (2016) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.75* (T)
-- (B)
Demographic NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 10 minutes
2 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required; 90 minutes recommended E-ESSA 0
Reflex Sarrell (2014) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.62* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 10 minutes
2 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required; 90 minutes recommended E-ESSA 0
Responsive Reading Instruction Denton et al. (2010) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
0.40* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

2 Prereading

13 Reading

Small group of students (3-5) 40 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC & E-ESSA 0
Responsive Reading Instruction Mathes et al. (2005) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
† (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

3 Reading

1 Writing

1 Math

Small group of students (3-5) 40 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC & E-ESSA 0
ROOTS (Whole Number Foundations Level K) Clarke et al. (2011) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
0.21 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Convincing evidence 4 Math Small group of students (5) 20 minutes
5 times a week
18 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0
ROOTS (Whole Number Foundations Level K) Clarke et al. (2015) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.75* (T)
0.34* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 5 Math Small group of students (5) 20 minutes
5 times a week
18 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0
Seeing Stars Bell, Hungerford et al. (n.d) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.49* (T)
0.19* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

10 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2-6)
55 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 week of initial training, then mentoring WWC & E-ESSA 0
Seeing Stars Bell, Worthington et al. (n.d) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.54* (T)
0.03 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

10 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2-6)
55 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 week of initial training, then mentoring WWC & E-ESSA 0
Seeing Stars plus Visualizing and Verbalizing and Phoneme Sequencing Burke et al. (2005) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.56* (T)
0.51* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

10 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2-6)
55 minutes
5 times a week
8 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1 week of initial training, then mentoring No 0
Sound Partners (1-3) Vadasy et al. (2005) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.80* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

7 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students 30 minutes
4 times a week
25 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 4
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy & Sanders (2008) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.22* (T)
0.39 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

2 Prereading

7 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2)
30 minutes
4 times a week
20 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training for initial training WWC & E-ESSA 4
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy & Sanders (2010) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.76* (T)
0.40* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

2 Prereading

4 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2)
30 minutes
4 times a week
20 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training for initial training WWC & E-ESSA 4
Sound Partners Kindergarten Vadasy et al. (2006) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.56* (T)
0.40* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

2 Prereading

4 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (2)
30 minutes
4 times a week
20 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training for initial training WWC & E-ESSA 4
Spring Math Codding et al. (2016) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.52 (T)
0.14 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 2 Math Individual students
Small group of students
15 minutes
5 times a week
15 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
1 hour of training No 0
Spring Math VanDerHeyden et al. (2015) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.64* (T)
0.20* (B)
<20th Percentile, Demographic NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 6 Math Individual students
Small group of students
15 minutes
5 times a week
15 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
1 hour of training No 0
SRSD for Writing Strategies Graham et al. (2005) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 15 Writing Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
20 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
6-12 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 53
SRSD for Writing Strategies Harris et al. (2006) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
-- (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 15 Writing Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
20 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
6-12 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 53
SRSD for Writing Strategies Lane et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.72* (T)
0.80* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 14 Writing Individual students
Small group of students (2-4)
20 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
6-12 hours of training WWC & E-ESSA 53
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson et al. (2010) Group Design Convincing evidence † (T)
0.20 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

3 Prereading

1 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students (2-5)
20 minutes
5 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC 0
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson, Benner, & Gonzalez (2005) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
†* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Prereading

2 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students (2-5)
20 minutes
5 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC 0
Stepping Stones to Literacy Nelson, Stages et al. (2005) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.82* (T)
† (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

3 Prereading

2 Reading

Individual students
Small group of students (2-5)
20 minutes
5 times a week
10 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required WWC 0
Structured Supplemental Spelling Instruction Graham et al. (2002) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
†* (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

2 Reading

6 Writing

Small group of students (2) 20 minutes
3 times a week
16 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
System 44 Next Generation Beam et al. (2011) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.14* (T)
0.02 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Prereading

6 Reading

Small group of students (5-7) 60 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
4-8 hours of training No 2
System 44 Next Generation Beam et al. (2012) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
†* (B)
<20th Percentile NA Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

4 Prereading

4 Reading

Small group of students (5-7) 60 minutes
5 times a week
Teacher
Specialist
4-8 hours of training No 2
Taped Problems Bliss et al. (2010) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Taped Problems Cressey & Ezbicki (2008) Group Design Unconvincing evidence 0.03 (T)
-- (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Taped Problems Krohn et al. (2012) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Taped Problems McCallum & Schmitt (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Taped Problems McCallum et al. (2004) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Taped Problems Poncy et al. (2007) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Data unavailable 1 Math Individual students 8 minutes
5 times a week
3 weeks
Teacher
Training not required No 0
Tutoring Buddy DuBois et al. (2014) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
0.89* (B)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Prereading Individual students 5 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0
Tutoring Buddy DuBois et al. (2016) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence 3 Prereading Individual students 5 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0
Tutoring Buddy Volpe et al. (2011) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable 2 Prereading Individual students 5 minutes
3 times a week
6 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0
Words Their Way: Word Study In Action Developmental Model Eddy et al. (2011) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.11 (T)
0.00 (B)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence

1 Prereading

1 Reading

1 Writing

Individual students
Small group of students (6)
15 minutes
5 times a week
38 weeks
Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
1-4 hours of training E-ESSA 0

The National Center on Intensive Intervention publishes this chart to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select intervention programs that best meet their individual needs.

The Center's Technical Review Committee (TRC) on Academic Intervention independently established a set of criteria for evaluating the scientific rigor of studies demonstrating the efficacy of instructional intervention programs. The TRC rated each submitted study against these criteria but did not compare it to other studies on the chart. The presence of a particular program on the chart does not constitute endorsement and should not be viewed as a recommendation from either the TRC on Academic Intervention or the National Center on Intensive Intervention.