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Behavioral Intervention Tools Chart

This tools chart presents information about behavioral intervention programs. The following four tabs include information and ratings on the technical rigor of the studies

  • Quality of Design & Results
  • Quality of Other Indicators
  • Program Information
  • Additional Research

The chart reviews studies about the intervention programs. As a result, you may see the intervention appear more than one time and receive different ratings.

Last updated: September 2021. Click here for a brief summary of the new and improved studies we've released.

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Resources



Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
NA   Not applicable
Mean ES
*The mean effect size includes at least one statistically significant individual effect size
A mean effect size could not be reported because at least one individual effect size could not be calculated
--No targeted (T), broader (B), or administrative (A) measures were submitted for this study

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Title Study Study Type Study Design Mean ES
(Targeted)
(Broader)
(Administrative)
Disaggregated ES
Data Available
Visual Analysis Participants Fidelity of Implementation Targeted Measures Broader Measures Target Behavior(s) Delivery Fidelity of Implementation Checklist Available Minimum Interventionist Requirements Minimum Training Requirements Intervention Reviewed by WWC Other Research Potentially Eligible for NCII Review
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Campbell & Anderson (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (Approximately 15) Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Half day or full day training No 11
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Hawken & Horner (2003) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (Approximately 15) Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Half day or full day training No 11
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Hawken et al. (2007) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (Approximately 15) Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Half day or full day training No 11
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Mong et al. (2011) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (Approximately 15) Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Half day or full day training No 11
Behavior Education Program (BEP) or Check-in/Check-out (CICO) Todd et al. (2008) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (Approximately 15) Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Half day or full day training No 11
Breaks are Better Boyd & Anderson (2013) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Check & Connect Maynard et al. (2014) Group Design Convincing evidence -- (T)
-- (B)
† (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
More than 8 hours of training WWC 4
Check & Connect Sinclair et al. (1998) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
-- (B)
† (A)
None NA Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
More than 8 hours of training WWC 4
Check & Connect Sinclair et al. (2005) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
More than 8 hours of training WWC 4
Check & Connect Strand & Lovrich (2014) Group Design Unconvincing evidence -- (T)
-- (B)
† (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
More than 8 hours of training WWC 4
Check, Connect, and Expect Cheney et al. (2009) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.20* (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Dunlap et al. (1994) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Jolivette et al. (2001) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Kern et al. (2001) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Kern et al. (2002) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Powell & Nelson (1997) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Choice as an Antecedent Intervention Rispoli et al. (2013) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (6-8)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT ) Kamps et al. (2015) Single Case Unconvincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (3-25)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training No 1
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT ) Kamps et al. (2011) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (3-25)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training No 1
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT ) Schmidt (n.d.) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (3-25)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training No 1
Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT ) Wills et al. (draft paper) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (3-25)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
4-8 hours of training No 1
Coping Power Program Lochman & Wells (2002); Lochman & Wells (2003) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
† (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (4-6) No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 hours of training WWC 0
Coping Power Program Lochman & Wells (2002); Lochman & Wells (2004) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
† (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (4-6) No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 hours of training WWC 0
Coping Power Program Lochman et al. (2006) Group Design Partially convincing evidence 0.12* (T)
0.03 (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (4-6) No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 hours of training WWC 0
Coping Power Program Lochman, Boxmeyer et al. (2009); Lochman, Powell et al. (2009); Lochman et al. (2012) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -0.16* (T)
-0.07 (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Small group of students (4-6) No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 hours of training WWC 0
Coping Power Program Zonnevylle-Bender et al. (2007); van de Wiel et al. (2007) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.17 (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Small group of students (4-6) No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
12 hours of training WWC 0
Daily Report Card Fabiano et al. (2010) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
† (B)
-- (A)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training WWC 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Didden et al. (1997) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Flood & Wilder (2004) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Haring & Kennedy (1990) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Kennedy & Haring (1993) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Luiselli et al. (1978) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Vance et al. (2012) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (Up to five students )
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training No 6
Good Behavior Game Rebok et al. (1996) Group Design Partially convincing evidence †* (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing A classroom of students Yes Teacher
Support Staff/Other
24 Hours of Group-Based Training; 20-30 hours of on-site coaching No 5
Group Contingency Donaldson et al. (2011) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Kleinman & Saigh (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Kowalewicz & Coffee (2014) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Lambert et al. (2015) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Ling et al. (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Maggin et al. (2012) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Rodriguez & Anderson (2013) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Group Contingency Wright & McCurdy (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students (2-25)
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Program Webster-Stratton & Hammond (1997) Group Design Convincing evidence †* (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (6)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
3 days of training plus ongoing consultation and video review until accredited. WWC 0
Incredible Years Child Dinosaur Program Webster-Stratton et al. (2004) Group Design Convincing evidence 0.49* (T)
-- (B)
-- (A)
None NA Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (6)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
3 days of training plus ongoing consultation and video review until accredited. WWC 0
Learning Strategies Curriculum: Self-Advocacy Strategy Van Reusen et al. (1989) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Externalizing, Internalizing Individual students
Small group of students (4-8)
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 1
Noncontingent Reinforcement Austin & Soeda (2008) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Ingvarrson et al. (2008) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Jones et al. (2000) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Rasmussen & O'Neil (2006) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Tomlin & Reed (2012) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Van Camp et al. (2000) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Noncontingent Reinforcement Waller & Higbee (2010) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training less than 1 hour No 10
Opportunities to Respond Armendariz & Umbreit (1999) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Christle & Schuster (2003) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Davis & O'Neil (2004) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Lambert et al. (2006) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Maheady et al. (2002) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Munro & Stephenson (2009) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Opportunities to Respond Narayan et al. (1990) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (3-30)
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Less than 1 hour of training. Training is not required. No 0
Self Management Amato-Zech et al. (2006) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Barry & Messer (2003) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Harris et al. (2005) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Levendoski & Cartledge (2000) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Moore et al. (2011) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Rock & Thread (2007) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Wolfe et al. (2000) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Self Management Wood et al. (2002) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required. No 1
Skillstreaming Ciechalski & Schmidt (1995) Group Design Partially convincing evidence -- (T)
1.56* (B)
-- (A)
None NA Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training not required No 0
Social Skills Strategies: The LEARN Strategy, a Cooperative Thinking Strategy Vernon (2020) Group Design Partially convincing evidence † (T)
† (B)
-- (A)
≤20th Percentile NA Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Externalizing, Internalizing Small group of students (4 )
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
No training is required. No 0
Token Economy Broden et al. (1970) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Christensen et al. (2004) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy O'Leary et al. (1969) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Salend & Gordon (1987) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Shook et al. (1990) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Smith et al. (1988) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Sulivan & O'Leary (1990) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Token Economy Walker et al. (1976) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students
Small group of students
A classroom of students
Yes Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Not available WWC 13
Video Modeling Axelrod et al. (2014) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Clare et al. (2000) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Clees & Greene (2014) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Hartley et al. (1998) Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Kern et al. (1995) Experiment 1 Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Kern et al. (1995) Experiment 2 Single Case Convincing evidence NA None Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0
Video Modeling Kern-Dunlap et al. (1992) Single Case Partially convincing evidence NA None Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Convincing evidence Data unavailable Externalizing Individual students No Teacher
Specialist
Support Staff/Other
Training is not required No 0

The National Center on Intensive Intervention publishes this chart to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select behavioral interventions that best meet their individual needs.

The Center's Technical Review Committee (TRC) on Behavioral Intervention independently established a set of criteria for evaluating the scientific rigor of studies demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral intervention programs. The TRC rated each submitted study against these criteria but did not compare it to other studies on the chart. The presence of a particular program on the chart does not constitute endorsement and should not be viewed as a recommendation from either the TRC on Behavior Intervention or the National Center on Intensive Intervention.