easyCBM in Math
CCSS Math
Cost 
Technology, Human Resources, and Accommodations for Special Needs 
Service and Support 
Purpose and Other Implementation Information 
Usage and Reporting 
Initial Cost: $5.00 per student* *Districts purchasing easyCBM will also need to provide $400 for 3 required training webinars.
Replacement Cost: $5.00 per student per year.
Annual license renewal fee subject to change.
Included in Cost: easyCBM is available through Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) on an annual subscription license for districts. The price is $5/student/year, which gives teachers access to all measures. The price includes manuals and use of the assessments. In Year 1, there are three training webinars; one is provided at no charge and two cost $200 each.
It is also available directly through the University of Oregon for individual classroom teacher use (limited to one teacher per building, maximum of 200 students). This teacher subscription includes the online training that is part of the system.
As easyCBM is computeradministered, students should have access to an internetconnected computer (Mac or PC). However, they can also take the tests in paper/pencil versions, with responses being manually added to the online system for scoring. Teachers need internetconnected computers to access materials such as the manual, score reports, and training videos. 
Technology Requirements:
*Educators can also use printers to print reports and PDF versions of the measures, if desired.
Training Requirements:
Qualified Administrators:
Accommodations: All measures were developed following Universal Design for Assessment guidelines to reduce the need for accommodations. All mathematics items include a builtin read aloud option for every question and response requiring reading. Districts are directed to follow their standard practices for providing additional accommodations as needed.

Where to Obtain: Contact Information for Districts: Website: http://www.hmhco.com/hmhassessments/responsetointervention/easycbm Address: HMH, Attention Customer Experience SupportAssessments, 255 38th Avenue, Suite L, St. Charles, IL 60174 Phone number: 800.323.9540 Email: easyCBM@hmhco.com
Contact Information for Individual Teachers: Website: www.easyCBM.com Address: BRT, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 Phone number: 541.346.3535 Email: support@easycbm.com
Help Desk via email and phone, as well as through the online FAQ/help page.

easyCBM® is a webbased district assessment system that includes both benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments combined with a comprehensive array of reports. The assessments in easyCBM are curriculumbased general outcome measures, or CBMs, which are standardized measures that sample from a year’s worth of curriculum to assess the degree to which students have mastered the skills and knowledge deemed critical at each grade level.
easyCBM, available for Grades K–8, provides three forms of a screening measure to be used locally for establishing benchmarks and multiple forms (generally 10 per strand in math) to be used to monitor progress. All measures have been developed with reference to specific content in math (Common Core State Standards) and developed using Item Response Theory (IRT).

Assessment Format:
*Manual administration is also possible.
Administration Time:
Scoring Time:
* Unless students complete paper/pencil versions of the tests, in which case responses must be entered in the online system for scoring.
Scoring Method:
Scores Generated:

Classification Accuracy
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Criterion 1 Fall  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d} 
Criterion 1 Winter  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d} 
Criterion 1 Spring  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d} 
Criterion 2 Fall  
Criterion 2 Winter  
Criterion 2 Spring 
Primary Sample
Criterion 1, Fall
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20^{th} percentile 
20^{th} percentile 
20^{th} percentile 
20^{th} percentile 
20^{th} percentile 
20^{th} percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.08 
0.10 
0.13 
0.14 
0.09 
0.12 
False Positive Rate 
0.18 
0.05 
0.07 
0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
False Negative Rate 
0.39 
0.43 
0.49 
0.52 
0.46 
0.51 
Sensitivity 
0.25 
0.29 
0.35 
0.36 
0.30 
0.33 
Specificity 
0.95 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
0.98 
0.95 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.82 
0.95 
0.93 
0.96 
0.95 
0.92 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.61 
0.57 
0.51 
0.48 
0.54 
0.49 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.64 
0.63 
0.60 
0.59 
0.61 
0.58 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.84 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.89 
0.87 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.82 
0.85 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
0.85 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.86 
0.89 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.89 
Criterion 1, Winter
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.10 
0.06 
0.08 
0.06 
0.08 
0.10 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.04 
0.00 
0.02 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
False Negative Rate 
0.37 
0.46 
0.57 
0.48 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Sensitivity 
0.33 
0.24 
0.22 
0.31 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.96 
1.00 
0.98 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.63 
0.54 
0.43 
0.52 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.68 
0.59 
0.51 
0.60 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
0.93 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.84 
0.89 
0.90 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.87 
0.92 
0.93 
0.94 
0.94 
Criterion 1, Spring
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.20 
0.25 
0.32 
0.35 
0.40 
0.36 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.03 
0.01 
0.02 
0.04 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.38 
0.47 
0.49 
0.56 
0.48 
0.46 
Sensitivity 
0.30 
0.21 
0.32 
0.24 
0.27 
0.38 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
0.99 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.97 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.62 
0.53 
0.51 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.67 
0.59 
0.60 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.88 
0.91 
0.93 
0.92 
0.93 
Additional Classification Accuracy
The following are provided for context and did not factor into the Classification Accuracy ratings.
Disaggregated Data
Fall
Subgroup: ELL
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.19 
0.29 
0.23 
0.36 
0.27 
0.28 
False Positive Rate 
0.18 
0.05 
0.07 
0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
False Negative Rate 
0.39 
0.43 
0.49 
0.52 
0.46 
0.51 
Sensitivity 
0.25 
0.29 
0.35 
0.36 
0.30 
0.33 
Specificity 
0.95 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
0.98 
0.95 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.82 
0.95 
0.93 
0.96 
0.95 
0.92 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.61 
0.57 
0.51 
0.48 
0.54 
0.49 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.64 
0.63 
0.60 
0.59 
0.61 
0.58 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.84 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.89 
0.87 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.82 
0.85 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
0.85 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.86 
0.89 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.89 
Winter
Subgroup: ELL
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.24 
0.18 
0.17 
0.19 
0.24 
0.17 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.04 
NA 
0.00 
NA 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.37 
0.46 
NA 
0.57 
NA 
0.48 
Sensitivity 
0.33 
0.24 
NA 
0.22 
NA 
0.31 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
NA 
1.00 
NA 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.96 
NA 
1.00 
NA 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.63 
0.54 
NA 
0.43 
NA 
0.52 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.68 
0.59 
NA 
0.51 
NA 
0.60 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.92 
0.91 
0.93 
0.91 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.84 
0.91 
0.89 
0.92 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.87 
0.94 
0.92 
0.94 
0.93 
Spring
Subgroup: ELL
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.36 
0.43 
0.51 
0.56 
0.43 
0.36 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.03 
0.01 
0.02 
0.04 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.38 
0.47 
0.49 
0.56 
0.48 
0.46 
Sensitivity 
0.30 
0.21 
0.32 
0.24 
0.27 
0.38 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
0.99 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.97 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.62 
0.53 
0.51 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.67 
0.59 
0.60 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.88 
0.91 
0.93 
0.92 
0.93 
Fall
Subgroup: Free or ReducedPrice Lunch
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.09 
0.14 
0.19 
0.17 
0.12 
0.19 
False Positive Rate 
0.18 
0.05 
0.07 
0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
False Negative Rate 
0.39 
0.43 
0.49 
0.52 
0.46 
0.51 
Sensitivity 
0.25 
0.29 
0.35 
0.36 
0.30 
0.33 
Specificity 
0.95 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
0.98 
0.95 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.82 
0.95 
0.93 
0.96 
0.95 
0.92 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.61 
0.57 
0.51 
0.48 
0.54 
0.49 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.64 
0.63 
0.60 
0.59 
0.61 
0.58 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.84 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.89 
0.87 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.82 
0.85 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
0.85 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.86 
0.89 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.89 
Winter
Subgroup: Free or Reduced Price Lunch
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.13 
0.09 
0.11 
0.07 
0.12 
0.13 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.04 
NA 
0.00 
NA 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.37 
0.46 
NA 
0.57 
NA 
0.48 
Sensitivity 
0.33 
0.24 
NA 
0.22 
NA 
0.31 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
NA 
1.00 
NA 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.96 
NA 
1.00 
NA 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.63 
0.54 
NA 
0.43 
NA 
0.52 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.68 
0.59 
NA 
0.51 
NA 
0.60 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.92 
0.91 
0.93 
0.91 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.84 
0.91 
0.89 
0.92 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.87 
0.94 
0.92 
0.94 
0.93 
Spring
Free or ReducedPrice Lunch
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.23 
0.28 
0.36 
0.36 
0.46 
0.43 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.03 
0.01 
0.02 
0.04 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.38 
0.47 
0.49 
0.56 
0.48 
0.46 
Sensitivity 
0.30 
0.21 
0.32 
0.24 
0.27 
0.38 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
0.99 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.97 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.62 
0.53 
0.51 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.67 
0.59 
0.60 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.88 
0.91 
0.93 
0.92 
0.93 
Fall
Subgroup: Hispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.11 
0.18 
0.17 
0.23 
0.13 
0.19 
False Positive Rate 
0.18 
0.05 
0.07 
0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
False Negative Rate 
0.39 
0.43 
0.49 
0.52 
0.46 
0.51 
Sensitivity 
0.25 
0.29 
0.35 
0.36 
0.30 
0.33 
Specificity 
0.95 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
0.98 
0.95 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.82 
0.95 
0.93 
0.96 
0.95 
0.92 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.61 
0.57 
0.51 
0.48 
0.54 
0.49 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.64 
0.63 
0.60 
0.59 
0.61 
0.58 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.84 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.89 
0.87 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.82 
0.85 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
0.85 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.86 
0.89 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.89 
Fall
Subgroup: NonHispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.07 
0.09 
0.12 
0.12 
0.08 
0.12 
False Positive Rate 
0.18 
0.05 
0.07 
0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
False Negative Rate 
0.39 
0.43 
0.49 
0.52 
0.46 
0.51 
Sensitivity 
0.25 
0.29 
0.35 
0.36 
0.30 
0.33 
Specificity 
0.95 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
0.98 
0.95 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.82 
0.95 
0.93 
0.96 
0.95 
0.92 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.61 
0.57 
0.51 
0.48 
0.54 
0.49 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.64 
0.63 
0.60 
0.59 
0.61 
0.58 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.84 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.89 
0.87 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.82 
0.85 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
0.85 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.86 
0.89 
0.87 
0.89 
0.91 
0.89 
Winter
Subgroup: Hispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.17 
0.13 
0.11 
0.13 
0.14 
0.17 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.04 
Not Provided 
0.00 
Not Provided 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.37 
0.46 
Not Provided 
0.57 
Not Provided 
0.48 
Sensitivity 
0.33 
0.24 
Not Provided 
0.22 
Not Provided 
0.31 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
Not Provided 
1.00 
Not Provided 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.96 
Not Provided 
1.00 
Not Provided 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.63 
0.54 
Not Provided 
0.43 
Not Provided 
0.52 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.68 
0.59 
Not Provided 
0.51 
Not Provided 
0.60 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.92 
0.91 
0.93 
0.91 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.84 
0.91 
0.89 
0.92 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.87 
0.94 
0.92 
0.94 
0.93 
Winter
Subgroup: NonHispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.08 
0.05 
0.06 
0.05 
0.07 
0.08 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.04 
Not Provided 
0.00 
Not Provided 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.37 
0.46 
Not Provided 
0.57 
Not Provided 
0.48 
Sensitivity 
0.33 
0.24 
Not Provided 
0.22 
Not Provided 
0.31 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
Not Provided 
1.00 
Not Provided 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.96 
Not Provided 
1.00 
Not Provided 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.63 
0.54 
Not Provided 
0.43 
Not Provided 
0.52 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.68 
0.59 
Not Provided 
0.51 
Not Provided 
0.60 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.92 
0.91 
0.93 
0.91 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.84 
0.91 
0.89 
0.92 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.87 
0.94 
0.92 
0.94 
0.93 
Spring
Subgroup: Hispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.25 
0.29 
0.37 
0.40 
0.47 
0.40 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.03 
0.01 
0.02 
0.04 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.38 
0.47 
0.49 
0.56 
0.48 
0.46 
Sensitivity 
0.30 
0.21 
0.32 
0.24 
0.27 
0.38 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
0.99 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.97 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.62 
0.53 
0.51 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.67 
0.59 
0.60 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.88 
0.91 
0.93 
0.92 
0.93 
Spring
Subgroup: NonHispanic
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
Cut points: Percentile rank on criterion measure 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
20th percentile 
Cut points: Performance score (numeric) on criterion measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Cut points: Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Base rate in the sample for children requiring intensive intervention 
0.19 
0.24 
0.31 
0.32 
0.39 
0.34 
False Positive Rate 
0.06 
0.03 
0.01 
0.02 
0.04 
0.02 
False Negative Rate 
0.38 
0.47 
0.49 
0.56 
0.48 
0.46 
Sensitivity 
0.30 
0.21 
0.32 
0.24 
0.27 
0.38 
Specificity 
0.98 
0.99 
1.00 
0.99 
0.99 
0.99 
Positive Predictive Power 
0.94 
0.97 
0.99 
0.98 
0.96 
0.98 
Negative Predictive Power 
0.62 
0.53 
0.51 
0.44 
0.52 
0.54 
Overall Classification Rate 
0.67 
0.59 
0.60 
0.53 
0.59 
0.64 
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 
0.88 
0.86 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
0.92 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
AUC 95% Confidence Interval Upper Bound 
0.90 
0.88 
0.91 
0.93 
0.92 
0.93 
Reliability
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Rating  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d}  ^{d} 
 Justification for each type of reliability reported, given the type and purpose of the tool: Splithalf reliability and Cronbach’s Alpha are both estimates of the internal consistency of the CCSS mathematics measures. Because the easyCBM CCSS mathematics measures are often administered for a set period of time (typically 30 minutes), not all students will complete all items. Having an internallyconsistent measure, where scores on two split halves of the assessment are correlated with one another, provides some reassurance that scores obtained when students complete only some of the items (for instance, when they “time out” after responding to only half of the possible items on the assessment) reflect the distribution of scores that would be obtained were the entire test completed.
 Description of the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each reliability analysis conducted: Demographic information for the convenience sample used for both the Splithalf and Cronbach’s Alpha analyses are presented below. The study was conducted using values from the fall and winter 2013‐2014 CCSS math benchmark assessments. The fall benchmark was taken by 9,360 kindergarteners; 18,911 grade 1 students; 20,910 grade 2 students; 18,356 grade 3 students; 18,229 grade 4 students; 18,652 grade 5 students; 11,860 grade 6 students; 10,384 grade 7 students; and 8,961 grade 8 students for a total of 135,893 participants. The winter benchmark was taken by 14,158 kindergarteners; 20,448 grade 1 students; 22,441 grade 2 students; 20,807 grade 3 students; 20,031 grade 4 students; 19,446 grade 5 students; 11,919 grade 6 students; 10,116 grade 7 students; and 9,254 grade 8 students for a total of 148,640 participants. Students of American Indian or Alaskan Native descent comprised 1‐4% of the sample, and Asian students made up 2‐3% of the sample across all grades. Black or African American students made up 10‐19% of the sample in grade K‐2 and 3‐5% of the sample in grade 3‐8. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander students made up 0‐1% and students identified as Two or more Races constituted 1‐2% of the sample across all grades. Lastly, White students made up 44‐55% of the sample, and those classified as Unknown ethnicity made up 29‐47% of the sample across all grades. Similarly, students identified as Hispanic/Latino made up 8‐16% of the sample and students identified as Not Hispanic/Latino made up 48‐70% of the sample, varying by grade level. The percentage of ELL students in the sample had a range of 16‐33%. Students identified by their districts as disabled constituted 17‐31% of the sample. Males made up 49‐53% of the sample.
 Description of the analysis procedures for each reported type of reliability: Prior to analysis, students who had not responded to any items on a particular math measure were removed from the dataset. Next, the data were examined for scoring irregularities, and any out‐of‐range values were removed. One 5th grade student from the winter benchmark was removed due to a score being not within the possible range for the measure. The measures were analyzed for internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alpha and Split‐half reliability (first half/second half). For the split‐half reliability, the measures were analyzed using the first half to the median compared to the second half.
 Reliability of performance level score (e.g., modelbased, internal consistency, interrater reliability).
Type of Reliability 
Age or Grade 
n 
Coefficient 
95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 
95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 

Splithalf 
K 
17838 
0.79 
0.82 
0.83 
Splithalf 
1 
22409 
0.82 
0.85 
0.85 
Splithalf 
2 
29362 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
3 
25104 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
4 
24860 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 
Splithalf 
5 
30162 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
6 
23562 
0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
7 
15574 
0.86 
0.87 
0.88 
Splithalf 
8 
9690 
0.86 
0.88 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
K 
17838 
0.81 
0.81 
0.82 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
1 
22409 
0.84 
0.84 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
2 
29362 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
3 
25104 
0.85 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
4 
24860 
0.87 
0.87 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
5 
30162 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
6 
23562 
0.89 
0.89 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
7 
15574 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
8 
9690 
0.88 
0.88 
0.88 
Disaggregated Reliability
The following disaggregated reliability data are provided for context and did not factor into the Reliability rating.
Type of Reliability 
Subgroup 
Age or Grade 
n 
Coefficient 
95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 
95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 

Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
K 
9114 
0.82 
0.81 
0.83 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
K 
8160 
0.81 
0.80 
0.81 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
1 
11254 
0.85 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
1 
10569 
0.83 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
2 
14633 
0.87 
0.87 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
2 
14150 
0.85 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
3 
12525 
0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
3 
12062 
0.84 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
4 
12559 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
4 
11817 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
5 
15091 
0.87 
0.87 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
5 
14574 
0.85 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
6 
12098 
0.90 
0.89 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
6 
11062 
0.89 
0.88 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
7 
7658 
0.88 
0.88 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
7 
7054 
0.86 
0.86 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Male 
8 
5054 
0.88 
0.88 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Female 
8 
4534 
0.87 
0.87 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Male 
K 
9114 
0.80 
0.82 
0.84 
Splithalf 
Female 
K 
8160 
0.79 
0.81 
0.83 
Splithalf 
Male 
1 
11254 
0.83 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Female 
1 
10569 
0.82 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Male 
2 
14633 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 
Splithalf 
Female 
2 
14150 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Male 
3 
12525 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Female 
3 
12062 
0.81 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Male 
4 
12559 
0.86 
0.88 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Female 
4 
11817 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Male 
5 
15091 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 
Splithalf 
Female 
5 
14574 
0.83 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Male 
6 
12098 
0.88 
0.90 
0.91 
Splithalf 
Female 
6 
11062 
0.87 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
Male 
7 
7658 
0.87 
0.88 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Female 
7 
7054 
0.85 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Male 
8 
5054 
0.87 
0.89 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Female 
8 
4534 
0.86 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
K 
1777 
0.80 
0.78 
0.81 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
K 
14319 
0.82 
0.81 
0.82 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
1 
2231 
0.83 
0.82 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
1 
17096 
0.84 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
2 
2766 
0.84 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
2 
22189 
0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
3 
2927 
0.88 
0.87 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
3 
17450 
0.84 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
4 
3255 
0.89 
0.89 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
4 
17512 
0.86 
0.86 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
5 
4283 
0.89 
0.89 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
5 
20955 
0.84 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
6 
3186 
0.90 
0.90 
0.91 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
6 
18240 
0.89 
0.88 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
7 
2458 
0.91 
0.90 
0.91 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
7 
11003 
0.86 
0.86 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
SPED 
8 
1160 
0.89 
0.89 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
GenEd 
8 
7353 
0.87 
0.87 
0.87 
Splithalf 
SPED 
K 
1777 
0.77 
0.80 
0.82 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
K 
14319 
0.80 
0.82 
0.83 
Splithalf 
SPED 
1 
2231 
0.81 
0.83 
0.84 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
1 
17096 
0.82 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
SPED 
2 
2766 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
2 
22189 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
SPED 
3 
2927 
0.86 
0.88 
0.90 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
3 
17450 
0.81 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
SPED 
4 
3255 
0.88 
0.90 
0.90 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
4 
17512 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
SPED 
5 
4283 
0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
5 
20955 
0.83 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
SPED 
6 
3186 
0.89 
0.90 
0.91 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
6 
18240 
0.87 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
SPED 
7 
2458 
0.90 
0.91 
0.91 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
7 
11003 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
SPED 
8 
1160 
0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
GenEd 
8 
7353 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
K 
258 
0.74 
0.70 
0.79 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
K 
610 
0.83 
0.81 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
K 
1855 
0.79 
0.77 
0.80 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
K 
285 
0.84 
0.81 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
K 
2142 
0.80 
0.79 
0.81 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
K 
10329 
0.81 
0.81 
0.82 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
1 
296 
0.83 
0.80 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
1 
658 
0.84 
0.83 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
1 
2191 
0.82 
0.81 
0.83 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
1 
324 
0.82 
0.79 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
1 
2433 
0.83 
0.82 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
1 
12920 
0.84 
0.84 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
2 
465 
0.86 
0.84 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
2 
944 
0.88 
0.87 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
2 
2216 
0.83 
0.82 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
2 
521 
0.86 
0.85 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
2 
4131 
0.84 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
2 
15532 
0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
3 
540 
0.84 
0.82 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
3 
814 
0.87 
0.86 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
3 
2911 
0.79 
0.77 
0.80 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
3 
130 
0.81 
0.77 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
3 
2045 
0.84 
0.83 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
3 
13117 
0.85 
0.84 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
4 
566 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
4 
855 
0.87 
0.86 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
4 
3680 
0.81 
0.81 
0.82 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
4 
130 
0.88 
0.85 
0.91 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
4 
1882 
0.85 
0.84 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
4 
12945 
0.86 
0.86 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
5 
632 
0.86 
0.84 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
5 
922 
0.89 
0.88 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
5 
4278 
0.78 
0.77 
0.79 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
5 
167 
0.83 
0.79 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
5 
2076 
0.84 
0.83 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
5 
16197 
0.85 
0.85 
0.86 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
6 
550 
0.87 
0.85 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
6 
1708 
0.91 
0.90 
0.91 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
6 
3161 
0.83 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
6 
121 
0.86 
0.83 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
6 
1412 
0.83 
0.82 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
6 
13645 
0.89 
0.89 
0.89 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
7 
264 
0.81 
0.78 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
7 
454 
0.93 
0.93 
0.94 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
7 
2642 
0.76 
0.75 
0.78 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
7 
50 
0.90 
0.85 
0.94 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
7 
1383 
0.84 
0.83 
0.85 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
7 
8080 
0.88 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
8 
254 
0.86 
0.85 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Asian 
8 
351 
0.89 
0.89 
0.90 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Black or African American 
8 
1810 
0.84 
0.83 
0.84 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
8 
48 
0.85 
0.83 
0.87 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
Two or more races 
8 
683 
0.87 
0.87 
0.88 
Cronbach’s Alpha 
White 
8 
5767 
0.88 
0.88 
0.88 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
K 
258 
0.69 
0.75 
0.79 
Splithalf 
Asian 
K 
610 
0.81 
0.84 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
K 
1855 
0.76 
0.79 
0.81 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
K 
285 
0.80 
0.84 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
K 
2142 
0.78 
0.80 
0.82 
Splithalf 
White 
K 
10329 
0.79 
0.82 
0.83 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
1 
296 
0.79 
0.83 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Asian 
1 
658 
0.82 
0.85 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
1 
2191 
0.80 
0.82 
0.84 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
1 
324 
0.78 
0.82 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
1 
2433 
0.81 
0.83 
0.85 
Splithalf 
White 
1 
12920 
0.82 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
2 
465 
0.83 
0.86 
0.88 
Splithalf 
Asian 
2 
944 
0.86 
0.88 
0.90 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
2 
2216 
0.80 
0.83 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
2 
521 
0.84 
0.87 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
2 
4131 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
White 
2 
15532 
0.83 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
3 
540 
0.81 
0.84 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Asian 
3 
814 
0.84 
0.87 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
3 
2911 
0.76 
0.79 
0.81 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
3 
130 
0.76 
0.82 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
3 
2045 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
White 
3 
13117 
0.82 
0.85 
0.86 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
4 
566 
0.85 
0.87 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Asian 
4 
855 
0.86 
0.88 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
4 
3680 
0.79 
0.82 
0.83 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
4 
130 
0.85 
0.88 
0.91 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
4 
1882 
0.83 
0.85 
0.87 
Splithalf 
White 
4 
12945 
0.85 
0.87 
0.88 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
5 
632 
0.83 
0.86 
0.88 
Splithalf 
Asian 
5 
922 
0.88 
0.89 
0.91 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
5 
4278 
0.75 
0.78 
0.80 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
5 
167 
0.78 
0.83 
0.86 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
5 
2076 
0.82 
0.84 
0.86 
Splithalf 
White 
5 
16197 
0.84 
0.86 
0.86 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
6 
550 
0.84 
0.87 
0.89 
Splithalf 
Asian 
6 
1708 
0.89 
0.91 
0.92 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
6 
3161 
0.81 
0.83 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
6 
121 
0.82 
0.86 
0.90 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
6 
1412 
0.81 
0.83 
0.85 
Splithalf 
White 
6 
13645 
0.88 
0.89 
0.90 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
7 
264 
0.77 
0.81 
0.84 
Splithalf 
Asian 
7 
454 
0.92 
0.94 
0.95 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
7 
2642 
0.74 
0.76 
0.78 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
7 
50 
0.85 
0.90 
0.94 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
7 
1383 
0.82 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
White 
7 
8080 
0.86 
0.88 
0.89 
Splithalf 
American Indian or Alaskan Native 
8 
254 
0.84 
0.86 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Asian 
8 
351 
0.88 
0.90 
0.90 
Splithalf 
Black or African American 
8 
1810 
0.81 
0.84 
0.85 
Splithalf 
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 
8 
48 
0.82 
0.85 
0.87 
Splithalf 
Two or more races 
8 
683 
0.86 
0.88 
0.88 
Splithalf 
White 
8 
5767 
0.87 
0.88 
0.89 
Validity
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Rating 
1.Description of each criterion measure used and explanation as to why each measure is appropriate, given the type and purpose of the tool: Two separate studies are described here.
STUDY 1: We analyzed the relation between the easyCBM CCSS Mathematics Assessment (Grades 38) and the Mathematics section of the Smarter Balanced Assessment (SBAS). The widespread use of SBAS across the United States makes it an appropriate measure to use for analyzing criterion validity (both predictive and concurrent). It is external to the easyCBM system and is considered a highstakes assessment, as it is the measure many states are using for their statewide largescale assessment system.
STUDY 2: We analyzed the relation between the easyCBM CCSS Mathematics Winter Benchmark Assessment (Grades 68) and the Stanford Achievement Test, 10th Edition (SAT10), given one week later. We selected the SAT10 based on its documented validity evidence (Pearson, 2004) and because both tests were designed to measure a similar construct (mathematics).
2.Description of the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each validity analysis conducted: STUDY 1: Data for this study came from a convenience sample provided by two school districts in the Pacific Northwest. All students enrolled in school and present during the threeweek easyCBM Benchmark Assessment windows in the fall (September 2014), winter (January 2015) and spring (May 2015) were administered the easyCBM assessments. All enrolled students were likewise administered the Smarter Balanced assessments during the testing window provided by the state in the spring of 2015. The data set provided by the districts included easyCBM CCSS Math, Passage Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and MultipleChoice Reading Comprehension (MCRC) as well as Smarter Balanced Math and English Language Arts total scores for students enrolled in grades 38. District 1 provided data for Grades 38, while District 2 provided data for Grades 48. In addition, District 1 provided demographic information, while District 2 (approximately ¼ the size of the first district) did not. Because of the missing demographics from a large proportion of the sample, the percentages for each of the demographic variables are calculated based on the students in the sample whose data included fullresolution demographic information.
During data cleaning, data from students who were administered the Alternate Assessment rather than the General Education assessment were removed from the dataset prior to further analyses. In all, six students each from Grades 4, 6, and 7 and three students from Grade 5 were removed from the dataset in this step. Data from all additional students were retained.
STUDY 2: This convenience sample came from a random sample of students per grade (grades 6, 7, and 8) within one school in the Pacific Northwest. The 6th grade sample (n = 67) included 33 girls, 8 students receiving special education services (SPED classification included: 1 identified as having an intellectual disability, 1 communication disorder, 1 other health impairment, and 6 learning disability). Of the 67 students, 6 were identified as English Language Learners, and 42 received free (n=36) or reducedprice (n=6) meals. In all, 56 students in this sample were identified as white, 7 as Hispanic, 1 as Asian, and 3 as “other”. The 7th grade sample (n = 63) included 24 girls, 7 students receiving special education services (SPED classification included: 3 identified as having an intellectual disability, 1 other health impairment, and 3 learning disability). Of the 63 students, 3 were identified as English Language Learners, and 36 received free (n=31) or reducedprice (n=5) meals. In all, 49 students in this sample were identified as white, 7 as Hispanic, 2 as Black/African American, and 5 as “other”. The 8th grade sample (n = 64) included 38 girls, 6 students receiving special education services (SPED classification included: 1 Autism spectrum disorder, 1 other health impairment, and 4 learning disability). Of the 64 students, 0 were identified as English Language Learners, and 29 received free (n=22) or reducedprice (n=7) meals. In all, 51 students in this sample were identified as white, 10 as Hispanic, and 2 as “other”.
3.Description of the analysis procedures for each reported type of validity: In both studies, we analyzed the data using bivariate correlations and linear regression using the SPSS software.
4.Validity for the performance level score (e.g., concurrent, predictive, evidence based on response processes, evidence based on internal structure, evidence based on relations to other variables, and/or evidence based on consequences of testing), and the criterion measures.
Type of Validity 
Grade 
Criterion 
n 
Coefficient 
95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 
95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 

Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
3 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1257 
0.58 
0.54 
0.63 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
3 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1302 
0.64 
0.60 
0.69 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
3 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1303 
0.63 
0.59 
0.68 
Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
4 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1539 
0.64 
0.60 
0.68 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
4 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1586 
0.63 
0.59 
0.67 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
4 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1602 
0.61 
0.57 
0.65 
Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
5 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1536 
0.64 
0.60 
0.68 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
5 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1576 
0.63 
0.59 
0.67 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
5 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1502 
0.61 
0.57 
0.65 
Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
6 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1503 
0.65 
0.61 
0.69 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
6 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1562 
0.71 
0.68 
0.75 
Concurrent (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à SAT10) 
6 
SAT10 
67 
0.82 
0.80 
0.85 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
6 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1545 
0.72 
0.69 
0.76 
Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
7 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1439 
0.68 
0.64 
0.72 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
7 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1482 
0.76 
0.73 
0.80 
Concurrent (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à SAT10) 
7 
SAT10 
63 
0.67 
0.63 
0.72 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
7 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1490 
0.73 
0.69 
0.76 
Predictive (Fall easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
8 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1376 
0.62 
0.58 
0.66 
Predictive (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
8 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1495 
0.65 
0.61 
0.69 
Concurrent (Win. easyCBM CCSS Math à SAT10) 
8 
SAT10 
64 
0.70 
0.67 
0.74 
Concurrent (Spr easyCBM CCSS Math à Spring SBAS) 
8 
Smarter Balanced Assessment 
1476 
0.67 
0.63 
0.71 
5.Results for other forms of validity (e.g. factor analysis) not conducive to the table format: Not Provided
6.Describe the degree to which the provided data support the validity of the tool: Data from both studies support the concurrent and predictive validity of the tool. Correlations between the easyCBM CCSS Mathematics measures and two very different external measures of mathematics suggest that the easyCBM CCSS Math assessments are, indeed, capturing important information about students’ knowledge of mathematics. The easyCBM CCSS Mathematics measures consistently predict student performance on other measures of mathematics.
Disaggregated Validity
The following disaggregated validity data are provided for context and did not factor into the Validity rating.
Type of Validity 
Subgroup 
Age or Grade 
Test or Criterion 
n 
Coefficient 
95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 
95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 

None 







Results for other forms of disaggregated validity (e.g. factor analysis) not conducive to the table format: Not Provided
Sample Representativeness
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 
Primary Classification Accuracy Sample
Criterion 1, Fall
Grade 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
Criterion 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
SBAS math 
National/Local Representation 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Pacific Northwest, OR and WA 
Date 
SY201415 
SY201415 
SY201415 
SY201415 
SY201415 
SY201415 
Sample Size 
26250 
30567 
30483 
29800 
29267 
34250 
Male 
12667 
12100 
12517 
12117 
11817 
13783 
Female 
11467 
11800 
11667 
11417 
11133 
13317 
Gender Unknown 
2117 
6667 
6300 
6267 
6317 
7150 
Free or Reducedprice Lunch Eligible 
8133 
8233 
7933 
8300 
7433 
7717 
White, NonHispanic 
5617 
4883 
5617 
4567 
5283 
7283 
Black, NonHispanic 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Hispanic 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
American Indian/Alaska Native 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Other 
20633 
25683 
24867 
25233 
23983 
26967 
Race/Ethnicity Unknown 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Disability Classification 
2683 
2767 
2550 
2567 
2283 
2750 
First Language 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Not Provided 
Language Proficiency Status 
2700 
2467 
2267 
1783 
1900 
1667 
Bias Analysis Conducted
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Rating  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
 Description of the method used to determine the presence or absence of bias: We ran DIF analyses for all our CCSS Math measures using the MantelHaenszel (MH) procedure with an iterative purification process. Items were evaluated by the delta MH statistic, and assigned letter grades (A, B, or C) based on the recommendation of Holland and Thayer (1988).
 Description of the subgroups for which bias analyses were conducted: We conducted DIF analyses for the following subgroups: gender, disability status, and race/ethnicity.
 Description of the results of the bias analyses conducted, including data and interpretative statements: Results indicated the CCSS math measures are not biased against gender, disability status, or race/ethnicity. At all grade levels, and all seasons, the CCSS math measures received a grade of “A” in the DIF analyses in all three of the groupings examined.
Grade 
Indicator 
Letter Grade Assigned 
K 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
K 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
K 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
1 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
1 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
1 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
2 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
2 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
2 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
3 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
3 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
3 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
4 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
4 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
4 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
5 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
5 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
5 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
6 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
6 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
6 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
7 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
7 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
7 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
8 
disability_grades 
All 20 items = A 
8 
female_grades 
All 20 items = A 
8 
minority_grades 
All 20 items = A 
Administration Format
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 
Administration & Scoring Time
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 
Scoring Format
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 
Types of Decision Rules
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 
Evidence Available for Multiple Decision Rules
Grade  3  4  5  6  7  8 

Data 