FAST™
CBMReading - English

Summary

FAST™ CBMreading is a version of Curriculum Based Measurement of Oral Reading (CBM-R), which was originally developed to index the level and rate of reading achievement. FAST™ CBMreading is used to screen and monitor student progress in reading competency in the primary grades (1-8). Students read aloud for one minute from grade-level or instructional-level passages (three passages per assessment). The words read correct per minute functions as a robust indicator of reading and a sensitive indicator of intervention effects.

Where to Obtain:
Theodore J. Christ & Colleagues, LLC/FastBridge Learning, LLC
info@fastbridge.org
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910, Minneapolis, MN 55402
6122542534
www.fastbridge.org
Initial Cost:
$7.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$7.00 per student per year
Included in Cost:
FAST™ assessments are accessed through an annual subscription offered by FastBridge Learning, priced on a “per student assessed” model. The subscription rate for school year 2017–18 is $7.00 per student. There are no additional fixed costs. FAST subscriptions are all inclusive providing access to: all FAST reading and math assessments for universal screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic purposes including Computer Adaptive Testing and Curriculum-Based Measurement; Behavior and Developmental Milestones assessment tools; the FAST data management and reporting system; embedded online system training for staff; and basic implementation and user support. In addition to the online training modules embedded within the FAST application, FastBridge Learning offers onsite training options. One, two, and three day packages are available. Packages are determined by implementation size and which FAST assessments (e.g., reading, math, and/or behavior) a district intends to use: 1-day package: $3,000.00; 2-day package: $6,000.00; 3-day package: $9,000.00. Any onsite training purchase also includes a complimentary online Admin/Manager training session (2 hours) for users who will be designated as District Managers and/or School Managers in FAST. Additionally, FastBridge offers web-based consultation and training delivered by certified FAST trainers. The web-based consultation and training rate is $200.00/hour.
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness
Training Requirements:
Less than 1 hour of training
Qualified Administrators:
No minimum qualifications specified.
Access to Technical Support:
Users have access to professional development technicians, as well as ongoing technical support.
Assessment Format:
  • Direct: Computerized
  • One-to-one
Scoring Time:
  • Scoring is automatic
Scores Generated:
  • Raw score
  • Percentile score
  • Developmental benchmarks
  • Error analysis
  • Other: Words read correct per minute
Administration Time:
  • 3 minutes per student
Scoring Method:
  • Automatically (computer-scored)
Technology Requirements:
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection
Accommodations:
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of your tool:
FAST™ CBMreading is a version of Curriculum Based Measurement of Oral Reading (CBM-R), which was originally developed to index the level and rate of reading achievement. FAST™ CBMreading is used to screen and monitor student progress in reading competency in the primary grades (1-8). Students read aloud for one minute from grade-level or instructional-level passages (three passages per assessment). The words read correct per minute functions as a robust indicator of reading and a sensitive indicator of intervention effects.
The tool is intended for use with the following grade(s).
not selected Preschool / Pre - kindergarten
not selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelfth grade

The tool is intended for use with the following age(s).
not selected 0-4 years old
not selected 5 years old
selected 6 years old
selected 7 years old
selected 8 years old
selected 9 years old
selected 10 years old
selected 11 years old
selected 12 years old
selected 13 years old
not selected 14 years old
not selected 15 years old
not selected 16 years old
not selected 17 years old
not selected 18 years old

The tool is intended for use with the following student populations.
not selected Students in general education
not selected Students with disabilities
not selected English language learners

ACADEMIC ONLY: What skills does the tool screen?

Reading
Phonological processing:
selected RAN
selected Memory
selected Awareness
selected Letter sound correspondence
selected Phonics
not selected Structural analysis

Word ID
selected Accuracy
selected Speed

Nonword
not selected Accuracy
selected Speed

Spelling
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Passage
selected Accuracy
selected Speed

Reading comprehension:
not selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Other (please describe):


Listening comprehension:
not selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Expressive
not selected Receptive

Mathematics
Global Indicator of Math Competence
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Early Numeracy
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Concepts
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Computation
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematic Application
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Fractions/Decimals
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Algebra
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Geometry
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

not selected Other (please describe):

Please describe specific domain, skills or subtests:
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Which category of behaviors does your tool target?


BEHAVIOR ONLY: Please identify which broad domain(s)/construct(s) are measured by your tool and define each sub-domain or sub-construct.

Acquisition and Cost Information

Where to obtain:
Email Address
info@fastbridge.org
Address
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910, Minneapolis, MN 55402
Phone Number
6122542534
Website
www.fastbridge.org
Initial cost for implementing program:
Cost
$7.00
Unit of cost
student
Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:
Cost
$7.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year
Additional cost information:
Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the tool. Provide information on what is included in the published tool, as well as what is not included but required for implementation.
FAST™ assessments are accessed through an annual subscription offered by FastBridge Learning, priced on a “per student assessed” model. The subscription rate for school year 2017–18 is $7.00 per student. There are no additional fixed costs. FAST subscriptions are all inclusive providing access to: all FAST reading and math assessments for universal screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic purposes including Computer Adaptive Testing and Curriculum-Based Measurement; Behavior and Developmental Milestones assessment tools; the FAST data management and reporting system; embedded online system training for staff; and basic implementation and user support. In addition to the online training modules embedded within the FAST application, FastBridge Learning offers onsite training options. One, two, and three day packages are available. Packages are determined by implementation size and which FAST assessments (e.g., reading, math, and/or behavior) a district intends to use: 1-day package: $3,000.00; 2-day package: $6,000.00; 3-day package: $9,000.00. Any onsite training purchase also includes a complimentary online Admin/Manager training session (2 hours) for users who will be designated as District Managers and/or School Managers in FAST. Additionally, FastBridge offers web-based consultation and training delivered by certified FAST trainers. The web-based consultation and training rate is $200.00/hour.
Provide information about special accommodations for students with disabilities.
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness

Administration

BEHAVIOR ONLY: What type of administrator is your tool designed for?
not selected General education teacher
not selected Special education teacher
not selected Parent
not selected Child
not selected External observer
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration setting?
not selected Direct observation
not selected Rating scale
not selected Checklist
not selected Performance measure
not selected Questionnaire
selected Direct: Computerized
selected One-to-one
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Does the tool require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your tool? (Select all that apply)
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

What is the administration context?
selected Individual
not selected Small group   If small group, n=
not selected Large group   If large group, n=
not selected Computer-administered
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration time?
Time in minutes
3
per (student/group/other unit)
student

Additional scoring time:
Time in minutes
per (student/group/other unit)

ACADEMIC ONLY: What are the discontinue rules?
not selected No discontinue rules provided
not selected Basals
not selected Ceilings
selected Other
If other, please specify:
Students read for one minute


Are norms available?
Yes
Are benchmarks available?
Yes
If yes, how many benchmarks per year?
3
If yes, for which months are benchmarks available?
September, December, and May
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Can students be rated concurrently by one administrator?
If yes, how many students can be rated concurrently?

Training & Scoring

Training

Is training for the administrator required?
Yes
Describe the time required for administrator training, if applicable:
Less than 1 hour of training
Please describe the minimum qualifications an administrator must possess.
selected No minimum qualifications
Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes
Are training manuals/materials field-tested?
No
Are training manuals/materials included in cost of tools?
Yes
If No, please describe training costs:
Can users obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes
If Yes, please describe how users can obtain support:
Users have access to professional development technicians, as well as ongoing technical support.

Scoring

How are scores calculated?
not selected Manually (by hand)
selected Automatically (computer-scored)
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Do you provide basis for calculating performance level scores?
Yes
What is the basis for calculating performance level and percentile scores?
not selected Age norms
selected Grade norms
not selected Classwide norms
not selected Schoolwide norms
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents

What types of performance level scores are available?
selected Raw score
not selected Standard score
selected Percentile score
not selected Grade equivalents
not selected IRT-based score
not selected Age equivalents
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents
selected Developmental benchmarks
not selected Developmental cut points
not selected Equated
not selected Probability
not selected Lexile score
selected Error analysis
not selected Composite scores
not selected Subscale/subtest scores
selected Other
If other, please specify:
Words read correct per minute

Does your tool include decision rules?
No
If yes, please describe.
Can you provide evidence in support of multiple decision rules?
No
If yes, please describe.
Please describe the scoring structure. Provide relevant details such as the scoring format, the number of items overall, the number of items per subscale, what the cluster/composite score comprises, and how raw scores are calculated.
Three raw scores are calculated for FAST™ CBMreading: a) total words read, which is defined as the total number of words read, including correct and incorrect responses; b) number of errors, which is defined as the total number of errors the student made during the one minute administration; and c) words read correct per minute, which is calculated as the total number of words read in one minute minus the number of errors made during the one minute.
Describe the tool’s approach to screening, samples (if applicable), and/or test format, including steps taken to ensure that it is appropriate for use with culturally and linguistically diverse populations and students with disabilities.
FAST™ CBMreading is an evidence-based assessment used to screen and monitor students’ progress in reading achievement in the primary grades (1-8). Each assessment is designed to be highly efficient and give a broad indication of reading competence. The automated output of each assessment gives information on the accuracy and fluency of passage reading which can be used to determine instructional level to inform intervention. To administer the measure, an examiner listens to the child read a set of short passages aloud (typically three passages). Each passage is comprised of approximately 200 to 300 words, which correspond with grade level text. Level 1 corresponds with use in kindergarten or early first grade, Level 2 with second-third grade, Level 3 with fourth, fifth, or sixth grade, and Level 4 with seventh or eighth grade. Each passage is read for one minute while the examiner uses the software to mark omissions, insertions, substitutions, hesitations, and mispronunciations as errors. The number of words read correctly per min (WRC) is then scored using the online application. The browser-based software provides the teacher with a convenient method to score and record assessment data with efficiency and accuracy. The administration of three passages takes approximately 5 minutes per student. The basic procedure includes a standardized set of directions that prompt a student to read aloud: "This is a story about____(read & point to the title). When I say, “BEGIN,” start reading aloud on the top of the page. READ ACROSS THE PAGE and then go to the next line (point to the first word, across the first line, and to the beginning of the second line). Try to read EACH WORD. If you come to a word that you DON'T KNOW, I'll tell it to you. Be sure to do your BEST READING. Okay?" (pause). In addition to following a strict rubric developed in consultation with educators and content experts to write passages, the researchers analyzed data from three rounds of field testing and edited passages that had linguistic issues based on those analyses and input from educators in the schools. The researchers further consulted with experts to decrease the amount of culturally biased material (e.g. first names of characters in the stories) in the assessment. A word bank containing phonetically regular decodable words was developed. The words included in the word bank were in accordance with the word structure suggested by Hiebert and Fisher (2007) and with the word difficulty developed by Menon and Hiebert (1999). Words that were classified as falling into lower levels of difficulty were considered appropriate to use in passage development while words falling into higher levels of difficulty were not included. High frequency word lists were used to design reading passages for students with lower levels of reading. In addition, the developed rubric prohibited the use of predictable writing (e.g. rhyming, repeated phrases or patterns, alliteration) in order to rely on decodability and sight word knowledge, rather than literary clues and cultural context. The goal for developing FAST™ CBMreading materials was to develop passages that were consistent for students in grades 1-8 and provided few confounds with a student’s background knowledge. Therefore, one type of text (narrative) was selected for use. Narratives were selected as the genre for FAST™ CBMreading passages because the events they typically reflect may be autobiographical and reflect episodes that students have been exposed to throughout their early development (Schank & Ableson, 1977; Trabasso & Stein, 1997).

Technical Standards

Classification Accuracy & Cross-Validation Summary

Grade Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Fall Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Winter Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Spring Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Fall Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Winter Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Spring Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available

Classification Accuracy - Criterion 1 Fall

Evidence Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
Criterion measure Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC) Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC)
Cut Points - Percentile rank on criterion measure 20 20 20 20 20 20
Cut Points - Performance score on criterion measure
Cut Points - Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure
Classification Data - True Positive (a) 52 59 33 53 47 26
Classification Data - False Positive (b) 30 26 42 26 44 25
Classification Data - False Negative (c) 15 7 6 15 8 5
Classification Data - True Negative (d) 70 98 110 80 98 148
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.81 0.93 0.89 0.87 0.90 0.90
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 0.76 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.87 0.87
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 0.86 0.96 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.93
Statistics Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
Base Rate 0.40 0.35 0.20 0.39 0.28 0.15
Overall Classification Rate 0.73 0.83 0.75 0.76 0.74 0.85
Sensitivity 0.78 0.89 0.85 0.78 0.85 0.84
Specificity 0.70 0.79 0.72 0.75 0.69 0.86
False Positive Rate 0.30 0.21 0.28 0.25 0.31 0.14
False Negative Rate 0.22 0.11 0.15 0.22 0.15 0.16
Positive Predictive Power 0.63 0.69 0.44 0.67 0.52 0.51
Negative Predictive Power 0.82 0.93 0.95 0.84 0.92 0.97
Sample Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6
Date 2012-13 2012-13 2012-13 2012-13 2012-13 2012-13
Sample Size 167 190 191 174 197 204
Geographic Representation West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN)
Male
Female
Other
Gender Unknown
White, Non-Hispanic
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Other
Race / Ethnicity Unknown
Low SES
IEP or diagnosed disability
English Language Learner

Reliability

Grade Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Rating Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Offer a justification for each type of reliability reported, given the type and purpose of the tool.
The first type of reliability evidence we present is inter-rater reliability. Inter-rater reliability is an appropriate measure of reliability for the use of FAST™ CBMreading because teachers listen to students and evaluate their oral reading fluency, including accuracy, so consistency across teachers (raters) is important. The second type of reliability evidence we present is alternate-form reliability. Alternate-form reliability is an appropriate measure of reliability for FAST™ CBMreading as a screening tool because students take alternate forms (actually passages) at each screening time point, so consistency in the rank order of scores over forms (passages) is important. The results presented below are median correlations between students’ scores on multiple passages (39 in first grade, and 60 in the other grades). The maximum amount of time between administration of the passages was two weeks.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each reliability analysis conducted.
Inter-rater Reliability: Approximately 1,900 students in grades 1-6 (see table below for student N by grade level). Students came from three samples, one from Minnesota, one from Georgia, and one from New York. Alternate-form Reliability: Approximately 150 students in each of grades 1-5. Students came from three samples: one from Minnesota, one from Georgia, and another from New York.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of reliability.
Inter-rater reliability coefficients were estimated by calculating the median percent agreement between two teachers scores for each student. Confidence intervals represent 95% confidence intervals. Students were tested on multiple passages in two weeks or less. Alternate-form reliability coefficients were estimated by calculating the Pearson product moment correlations between scores for each combination of passages. The coefficients below represent the median of those correlations. Confidence intervals represent 95% confidence intervals.

*In the table(s) below, report the results of the reliability analyses described above (e.g., internal consistency or inter-rater reliability coefficients).

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Do you have reliability data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?
No

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated reliability data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Validity

Grade Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Rating Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence Convincing evidence
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Describe each criterion measure used and explain why each measure is appropriate, given the type and purpose of the tool.
The criterion measure for both types of validity analyzes (concurrent and predictive) is the oral reading fluency measure that is a part of the AIMSWEB system. The measure is an appropriate criterion because is measures a construct hypothesized to be related to FAST™ CBMreading.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each validity analysis conducted.
Concurrent and predictive analyses with AIMSWEB oral reading fluency measure were conducted on a sample of students from Minnesota. There were approximately 220 students in each of grades 1-6.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of validity.
Validity coefficients were calculated by computing Pearson product moment correlations between FAST™ CBMreading and the criterion measure. Confidence intervals represent 95% confidence intervals.

*In the table below, report the results of the validity analyses described above (e.g., concurrent or predictive validity, evidence based on response processes, evidence based on internal structure, evidence based on relations to other variables, and/or evidence based on consequences of testing), and the criterion measures.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Describe the degree to which the provided data support the validity of the tool.
The validity coefficients provide moderate to strong evidence for the use of FAST™ CBMreading as a measure of CBM-R.
Do you have validity data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?
No

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated validity data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Bias Analysis

Grade Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Rating No No No No No No
Have you conducted additional analyses related to the extent to which your tool is or is not biased against subgroups (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, students with disabilities, English language learners)? Examples might include Differential Item Functioning (DIF) or invariance testing in multiple-group confirmatory factor models.
No
If yes,
a. Describe the method used to determine the presence or absence of bias:
b. Describe the subgroups for which bias analyses were conducted:
c. Describe the results of the bias analyses conducted, including data and interpretative statements. Include magnitude of effect (if available) if bias has been identified.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.