easyCBM in Reading
Reading Comprehension

Summary

easyCBM® is a web-based district assessment system that includes both benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments combined with a comprehensive array of reports. The assessments in easyCBM are curriculum-based general outcome measures, or CBMs, which are standardized measures that sample from a year’s worth of curriculum to assess the degree to which students have mastered the skills and knowledge deemed critical at each grade level. easyCBM, available for Grades K–8, provides three forms of a screening measure to be used locally for establishing benchmarks and multiple forms (generally 17 in reading) to be used to monitor progress. All measures have been developed with reference to specific content in reading (National Reading Panel) and developed using Item Response Theory (IRT)

Where to Obtain:
Developer: Behavioral Research and Teaching, Dept. of Education, U. of Oregon; Publisher: Riverside Assessments, LLC, d/b/a Riverside Insights
District: easyCBM@hmhco.com Individual: support@easycbm.com
District Users: Riverside Insights, Attention: Customer Service One Pierce Place, Suite 900W, Itasca, Illinois 60143
District: 800/323.9540 Individual: 541/346.3535
District Accounts: http://www.riversideinsights.com; Individual teacher users: easyCBM.com
Initial Cost:
$5.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$5.00 per student per 1 year
Included in Cost:
easyCBM is available through Riverside Insights on an annual subscription license for districts. Price is $5/student/year, which gives teachers access to all measures. The price includes manuals and use of the assessments. In Year 1, there are three training webinars; one is provided at no charge and two cost $200 each. It is also available directly through the University of Oregon for individual classroom teacher use (limited to one teacher per building, maximum of 200 students). This teacher subscription includes the online training that is part of the system. As easyCBM is computer-administered, students must have access to an Internet-connected computer (Mac or PC). Teachers need Internet-connected computers to access the manual, score reports, training videos, etc.
All measures were developed following Universal Design for Assessment guidelines to reduce the need for accommodations. However, districts are directed to develop their own practices for accommodations as needed.
Training Requirements:
1-4 hrs of training
Qualified Administrators:
paraprofessional level
Access to Technical Support:
Help Desk via email and phone
Assessment Format:
  • Direct: Computerized
Scoring Time:
  • Scoring is automatic
Scores Generated:
  • Raw score
  • Percentile score
Administration Time:
  • 30 minutes per student
Scoring Method:
  • Automatically (computer-scored)
Technology Requirements:
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection
  • Other technology : Educators can also use printers to print reports and PDF versions of the measures, if they wish
Accommodations:
All measures were developed following Universal Design for Assessment guidelines to reduce the need for accommodations. However, districts are directed to develop their own practices for accommodations as needed.

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of your tool:
easyCBM® is a web-based district assessment system that includes both benchmarking and progress monitoring assessments combined with a comprehensive array of reports. The assessments in easyCBM are curriculum-based general outcome measures, or CBMs, which are standardized measures that sample from a year’s worth of curriculum to assess the degree to which students have mastered the skills and knowledge deemed critical at each grade level. easyCBM, available for Grades K–8, provides three forms of a screening measure to be used locally for establishing benchmarks and multiple forms (generally 17 in reading) to be used to monitor progress. All measures have been developed with reference to specific content in reading (National Reading Panel) and developed using Item Response Theory (IRT)
The tool is intended for use with the following grade(s).
not selected Preschool / Pre - kindergarten
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelfth grade

The tool is intended for use with the following age(s).
not selected 0-4 years old
not selected 5 years old
not selected 6 years old
selected 7 years old
selected 8 years old
selected 9 years old
selected 10 years old
selected 11 years old
selected 12 years old
selected 13 years old
not selected 14 years old
not selected 15 years old
not selected 16 years old
not selected 17 years old
not selected 18 years old

The tool is intended for use with the following student populations.
not selected Students in general education
not selected Students with disabilities
not selected English language learners

ACADEMIC ONLY: What skills does the tool screen?

Reading
Phonological processing:
not selected RAN
not selected Memory
not selected Awareness
not selected Letter sound correspondence
not selected Phonics
not selected Structural analysis

Word ID
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Nonword
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Spelling
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Passage
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Reading comprehension:
selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Other (please describe):


Listening comprehension:
not selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Expressive
not selected Receptive

Mathematics
Global Indicator of Math Competence
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Early Numeracy
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Concepts
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Computation
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematic Application
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Fractions/Decimals
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Algebra
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Geometry
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

not selected Other (please describe):

Please describe specific domain, skills or subtests:
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Which category of behaviors does your tool target?


BEHAVIOR ONLY: Please identify which broad domain(s)/construct(s) are measured by your tool and define each sub-domain or sub-construct.

Acquisition and Cost Information

Where to obtain:
Email Address
District: easyCBM@hmhco.com Individual: support@easycbm.com
Address
District Users: Riverside Insights, Attention: Customer Service One Pierce Place, Suite 900W, Itasca, Illinois 60143
Phone Number
District: 800/323.9540 Individual: 541/346.3535
Website
District Accounts: http://www.riversideinsights.com; Individual teacher users: easyCBM.com
Initial cost for implementing program:
Cost
$5.00
Unit of cost
student
Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:
Cost
$5.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
1 year
Additional cost information:
Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the tool. Provide information on what is included in the published tool, as well as what is not included but required for implementation.
easyCBM is available through Riverside Insights on an annual subscription license for districts. Price is $5/student/year, which gives teachers access to all measures. The price includes manuals and use of the assessments. In Year 1, there are three training webinars; one is provided at no charge and two cost $200 each. It is also available directly through the University of Oregon for individual classroom teacher use (limited to one teacher per building, maximum of 200 students). This teacher subscription includes the online training that is part of the system. As easyCBM is computer-administered, students must have access to an Internet-connected computer (Mac or PC). Teachers need Internet-connected computers to access the manual, score reports, training videos, etc.
Provide information about special accommodations for students with disabilities.
All measures were developed following Universal Design for Assessment guidelines to reduce the need for accommodations. However, districts are directed to develop their own practices for accommodations as needed.

Administration

BEHAVIOR ONLY: What type of administrator is your tool designed for?
not selected General education teacher
not selected Special education teacher
not selected Parent
not selected Child
not selected External observer
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration setting?
not selected Direct observation
not selected Rating scale
not selected Checklist
not selected Performance measure
not selected Questionnaire
selected Direct: Computerized
not selected One-to-one
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Does the tool require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your tool? (Select all that apply)
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
Educators can also use printers to print reports and PDF versions of the measures, if they wish

What is the administration context?
selected Individual
selected Small group   If small group, n=
selected Large group   If large group, n=
not selected Computer-administered
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration time?
Time in minutes
30
per (student/group/other unit)
student

Additional scoring time:
Time in minutes
0
per (student/group/other unit)
student

ACADEMIC ONLY: What are the discontinue rules?
selected No discontinue rules provided
not selected Basals
not selected Ceilings
not selected Other
If other, please specify:


Are norms available?
Yes
Are benchmarks available?
Yes
If yes, how many benchmarks per year?
3
If yes, for which months are benchmarks available?
September/January/May-June
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Can students be rated concurrently by one administrator?
If yes, how many students can be rated concurrently?

Training & Scoring

Training

Is training for the administrator required?
Yes
Describe the time required for administrator training, if applicable:
1-4 hrs of training
Please describe the minimum qualifications an administrator must possess.
paraprofessional level
not selected No minimum qualifications
Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes
Are training manuals/materials field-tested?
Yes
Are training manuals/materials included in cost of tools?
Yes
If No, please describe training costs:
Can users obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes
If Yes, please describe how users can obtain support:
Help Desk via email and phone

Scoring

How are scores calculated?
not selected Manually (by hand)
selected Automatically (computer-scored)
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Do you provide basis for calculating performance level scores?
Yes
What is the basis for calculating performance level and percentile scores?
not selected Age norms
selected Grade norms
not selected Classwide norms
not selected Schoolwide norms
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents

What types of performance level scores are available?
selected Raw score
not selected Standard score
selected Percentile score
not selected Grade equivalents
not selected IRT-based score
not selected Age equivalents
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents
not selected Developmental benchmarks
not selected Developmental cut points
not selected Equated
not selected Probability
not selected Lexile score
not selected Error analysis
not selected Composite scores
not selected Subscale/subtest scores
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Does your tool include decision rules?
Yes
If yes, please describe.
Students are identified as “low risk”, “some risk”, or “high risk” based on their performance on the PRF Measures relative to grade-level peers in the national norm group. Individual Districts set the range of percentile ranks for such classifications following training provided by Riverside Insights on the system and its uses. The Benchmark/Screener reports provide suggested progress monitoring measures to use as follow-up for students identified as “high risk”. Trainings on the system provide guidance to teachers to log and provide interventions to students identified as “some” or “high risk” following their district’s policies.
Can you provide evidence in support of multiple decision rules?
No
If yes, please describe.
Please describe the scoring structure. Provide relevant details such as the scoring format, the number of items overall, the number of items per subscale, what the cluster/composite score comprises, and how raw scores are calculated.
Answer keys are available for all selected-response benchmark screening measures (reading comprehension) Each subtest has its own score; these individual scores are not converted to a total composite score. The subtest total score is simply the total of all items correct.
Describe the tool’s approach to screening, samples (if applicable), and/or test format, including steps taken to ensure that it is appropriate for use with culturally and linguistically diverse populations and students with disabilities.
The authors have approached screening from two perspectives with respect to (a) goal level sampling from nationally framed standards and (b) scaling. Test format focuses on principles of universal design with either individually administered tasks (for early reading skills and fluency) or computer-based testing for group-administered tests in vocabulary, comprehension, and all mathematics tests. Scoring practices emphasize objectivity with diagnostic information for teachers and immediate feedback for students. a. In reading, the authors used the National Reading Panel report (NRP) to develop a full complement of tasks across the grade levels. easyCBM reading measures include phonemic awareness (letter names and phoneme segmentation), phonics (letter sounds, and word reading fluency), fluency (passage reading fluency), vocabulary (word meaning synonyms), and comprehension (multiple-choice narrative stories that have associated questions addressing literal, inferential, and evaluative understanding). b. From a scaling perspective, the authors designed alternate forms for most measures (passage reading fluency is the only exception) to be comparable using item response theory (IRT). A common-person, common-item equating design was used to scale all items. Within specific skill areas (e.g., letter names, letter sounds, words in a list for word reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension), approximately 250 students responded to multiple item sets, and each test form contained items common across forms. The equated item scale scores and model fit statistics were used to (a) identify items of similar difficulty, (b) estimate student equated scores, and (c) remove/revise items of poor psychometric quality. They then placed the items into final alternate forms so that each form included items with similar levels of difficulty. They generally placed easier items and interspersed common items near the beginning of the form, as Benchmark screening measures are timed and students would then be assured of a sensitive measure for estimating their ability. For passage fluency, original narrative stories were written and Flesh Kinkaid estimates of ability were calculated for each paragraph; where readability exceeded beyond a half grade level for that grade, words were exchanged from the word list (which had measure estimates for each word) by inserting more difficult words (for passages deemed too easy) or less difficult (for passages deemed too difficult). N.B. The authors used IRT to equate the forms but not to make scales for reporting purposes; rather, all outcomes are based on raw scores. See technical reports. Tasks are grade-level referenced. For all computer-based tests, the student administration is compatible with popular browsers (PC: Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Chrome, Mac: Safari, Firefox, and Chrome). Furthermore, the computer presentation is optimized for a clear presentation of the item, with large-option buttons to facilitate option selection, and “next” buttons to assure easy navigation in moving forward or backward across problems. Test items and test forms underwent bias review to ensure that they are appropriate for diverse populations, with a special emphasis on culturally and linguistically diverse student populations and students with learning disabilities. In addition, we conduct DIF analyses to provide evidence that the items function equivalently across different student populations.

Technical Standards

Classification Accuracy & Cross-Validation Summary

Grade Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Fall Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Winter Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Spring Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Fall Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Winter Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Spring Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable Data unavailable
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available

Classification Accuracy - Criterion 1 Fall

Evidence Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Criterion measure Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment
Cut Points - Percentile rank on criterion measure 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Cut Points - Performance score on criterion measure
Cut Points - Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure
Classification Data - True Positive (a)
Classification Data - False Positive (b)
Classification Data - False Negative (c)
Classification Data - True Negative (d)
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.81 0.84 0.83 0.79 0.80 0.80 0.81
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 0.79 0.82 0.81 0.76 0.78 0.78 0.79
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 0.83 0.86 0.85 0.81 0.82 0.82 0.83
Statistics Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Base Rate
Overall Classification Rate
Sensitivity
Specificity
False Positive Rate
False Negative Rate
Positive Predictive Power
Negative Predictive Power
Sample Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Date SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15
Sample Size
Geographic Representation Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA)
Male 12667 12100 12517 12117 11817 13783
Female 11467 11800 11667 11417 11133 13317
Other
Gender Unknown 2117 6667 6300 6267 6317 7150
White, Non-Hispanic 5617 4883 5617 4567 5283 7283
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Other 20633 25683 24867 25233 23983 26967
Race / Ethnicity Unknown
Low SES 8133 8233 7933 8300 7433 7717
IEP or diagnosed disability 2683 2767 2550 2567 2283 2750
English Language Learner 2700 2467 2267 1783 1900 1667

Classification Accuracy - Criterion 1 Winter

Evidence Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Criterion measure Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment
Cut Points - Percentile rank on criterion measure 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Cut Points - Performance score on criterion measure
Cut Points - Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure
Classification Data - True Positive (a)
Classification Data - False Positive (b)
Classification Data - False Negative (c)
Classification Data - True Negative (d)
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.83 0.82 0.84 0.75 0.78 0.76 0.83
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 0.81 0.79 0.82 0.72 0.75 0.74 0.81
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.77 0.80 0.79 0.85
Statistics Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Base Rate
Overall Classification Rate
Sensitivity
Specificity
False Positive Rate
False Negative Rate
Positive Predictive Power
Negative Predictive Power
Sample Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Date SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15
Sample Size
Geographic Representation Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA)
Male 12667 12100 12517 12117 11817 13783
Female 11467 11800 11667 11417 11133 13317
Other
Gender Unknown 2117 6667 6300 6267 6317 7150
White, Non-Hispanic 5617 4883 5617 4567 5283 7283
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Other 20633 25683 24867 25233 23983 26967
Race / Ethnicity Unknown
Low SES 8133 8233 7933 8300 7433 7717
IEP or diagnosed disability 2683 2767 2550 2567 2283 2750
English Language Learner 2700 2467 2267 1783 1900 1667

Classification Accuracy - Criterion 1 Spring

Evidence Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Criterion measure Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment
Cut Points - Percentile rank on criterion measure 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Cut Points - Performance score on criterion measure
Cut Points - Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure
Classification Data - True Positive (a)
Classification Data - False Positive (b)
Classification Data - False Negative (c)
Classification Data - True Negative (d)
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.85 0.80 0.82 0.80 0.81 0.80 0.85
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 0.83 0.77 0.79 0.78 0.79 0.78 0.83
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 0.87 0.82 0.84 0.82 0.83 0.83 0.87
Statistics Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Base Rate
Overall Classification Rate
Sensitivity
Specificity
False Positive Rate
False Negative Rate
Positive Predictive Power
Negative Predictive Power
Sample Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8
Date SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15 SY2014-15
Sample Size
Geographic Representation Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA) Pacific (OR, WA)
Male 12667 12100 12517 12117 11817 13783
Female 11467 11800 11667 11417 11133 13317
Other
Gender Unknown 2117 6667 6300 6267 6317 7150
White, Non-Hispanic 5617 4883 5617 4567 5283 7283
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Other 20633 25683 24867 25233 23983 26967
Race / Ethnicity Unknown
Low SES 8133 8233 7933 8300 7433 7717
IEP or diagnosed disability 2683 2767 2550 2567 2283 2750
English Language Learner 2700 2467 2267 1783 1900 1667

Reliability

Grade Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Rating Convincing evidence d Convincing evidence d Convincing evidence d Convincing evidence d Convincing evidence d Convincing evidence d Partially convincing evidence d
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Offer a justification for each type of reliability reported, given the type and purpose of the tool.
Split-half reliability and Cronbach’s Alpha are both estimates of the internal consistency of the MCRC measures. Because the easyCBM MCRC measures are often administered for a set period of time (typically 30-45 minutes), not all students will complete all items. Having an internally-consistent measure, where scores on two split halves of the assessment are correlated with one another, provides some reassurance that scores obtained when students complete only some of the items (for instance, when they “time out” after responding to only half of the possible items on the assessment) reflect the distribution of scores that would be obtained were the entire test completed.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each reliability analysis conducted.
Demographic information for the convenience sample used for both the Split-half and Cronbach’s Alpha analyses are presented below. The study was conducted using values from the fall and winter 2013‐2014 Vocabulary benchmark assessments. The fall benchmark was taken by 20,252 grade 2 students; 23,694 grade 3 students; 17,850 grade 4 students; 26,978 grade 5 students; 17,222 grade 6 students; 12,798 grade 7 students; and 8,965 grade 8 students. The winter benchmark was taken by 19,158 grade 2 students; 21,807 grade 3 students; 15,031 grade 4 students; 23,146 grade 5 students; 15,575 grade 6 students; 11,506 grade 7 students; and 9,464 grade 8 students. Students of American Indian or Alaskan Native descent comprised 1‐4% of the sample, and Asian students made up 2‐3% of the sample across all grades. Black or African American students made up 10‐19% of the sample in grade 2 and 3‐5% of the sample in grade 3‐8. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander students made up 0‐1% and students identified as Two or more Races constituted 1‐2% of the sample across all grades. Lastly, White students made up 44‐55% of the sample, and those classified as Unknown ethnicity made up 29‐47% of the sample across all grades. Similarly, students identified as Hispanic/Latino made up 8‐16% of the sample and students identified as Not Hispanic/Latino made up 48‐70% of the sample, varying by grade level. The percentage of ELL students in the sample had a range of 16‐33%. Students identified by their districts as disabled constituted 17‐31% of the sample. Males made up 49‐53% of the sample.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of reliability.
Prior to analysis, students who had not responded to any items on a particular MCRC measure were removed from the dataset. The measures were analyzed for internal consistency using Cronbach’s Alpha and Split‐half reliability (first half/second half). For the split‐half reliability, the measures were analyzed using the first half to the median compared to the second half.

*In the table(s) below, report the results of the reliability analyses described above (e.g., internal consistency or inter-rater reliability coefficients).

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Do you have reliability data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?
Yes

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated reliability data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Additional disaggregated data is available from the Center upon request.
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Validity

Grade Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Rating Data unavailable Partially convincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence Unconvincing evidence
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Describe each criterion measure used and explain why each measure is appropriate, given the type and purpose of the tool.
We used the Smarter Balanced English Language Arts Assessment as our criterion measure. This measure is completely independent from the screening measure. SBAS is a large-scale assessment in wide use across the United States as a state accountability measure. Because it is used by so many states for their accountability measure, school districts are quite interested in the relation between SBAS and easyCBM MCRC.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each validity analysis conducted.
Data for this study came from a convenience sample provided by two school districts in the Pacific Northwest. All students enrolled in school and present during the three-week easyCBM Benchmark Assessment windows in the fall (September 2014), winter (January 2015) and spring (May 2015) were administered the easyCBM assessments. All enrolled students were likewise administered the Smarter Balanced assessments during the testing window provided by the state in the spring of 2015. The data set provided by the districts included easyCBM CCSS Math, Passage Reading Fluency, Vocabulary, and Multiple Choice Reading Comprehension (MCRC) as well as Smarter Balanced Math and English Language Arts total scores for students enrolled in grades 3-8. District 1 provided data for Grades 3-8, while District 2 provided data for Grades 4-8. In addition, District 1 provided demographic information, while District 2 (approximately ¼ the size of the first district) did not. Known demographics of the sample are provided in Table 1. Because of the missing demographics from a large proportion of the sample, the percentages for each of the demographic variables are calculated based on the students in the sample whose data included full-resolution demographic information. During data cleaning, data from students who were administered the Alternate Assessment rather than the General Education assessment were removed from the dataset prior to further analyses. In all, six students each from Grades 4, 6, and 7 and three students from Grade 5 were removed from the dataset in this step. Data from all additional students were retained.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of validity.
We analyzed the data using bivariate correlations and linear regression using SPSS software.

*In the table below, report the results of the validity analyses described above (e.g., concurrent or predictive validity, evidence based on response processes, evidence based on internal structure, evidence based on relations to other variables, and/or evidence based on consequences of testing), and the criterion measures.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Describe the degree to which the provided data support the validity of the tool.
Data from these validity studies support the concurrent and predictive validity of the tool. Correlations between the easyCBM MCRC measures and an external measure of English Language Arts that includes reading comprehension as a tested construct suggest that the easyCBM MCRC assessments are, indeed, capturing important information about students’ ability to make sense of what they are reading. The easyCBM MCRC measures consistently predict student performance on other measures of English Language Arts.
Do you have validity data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?
No

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated validity data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Bias Analysis

Grade Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Rating Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Have you conducted additional analyses related to the extent to which your tool is or is not biased against subgroups (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, students with disabilities, English language learners)? Examples might include Differential Item Functioning (DIF) or invariance testing in multiple-group confirmatory factor models.
Yes
If yes,
a. Describe the method used to determine the presence or absence of bias:
We ran DIF analyses for all easyCBM Vocabulary measures using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure with an iterative purification process. Items were evaluated by the delta MH statistic, and assigned letter grades (A, B, or C) based on the recommendation of Holland and Thayer (1988).
b. Describe the subgroups for which bias analyses were conducted:
We conducted DIF analyses for the following sub-groups: gender, disability status, and race/ethnicity.
c. Describe the results of the bias analyses conducted, including data and interpretative statements. Include magnitude of effect (if available) if bias has been identified.
Results indicated the easyCBM Vocabulary measures are not biased against gender, disability status, or race/ethnicity. At all grade levels, and all seasons, the easyCBM Vocabulary items received a grade of “A” in the DIF analyses in all three of the groupings examined.

Data Collection Practices

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.