FAST™
earlyReading Composite

Summary

FAST™ earlyReading is an evidence-based assessment used to screen and monitor student progress. Typically administered in grades PreK-1, they may be used for screening up through grade 3 and for frequent progress monitoring at any grade. Each assessment is designed to be highly efficient and inform instruction. The FAST™ earlyReading assessments are comprised of 12 sub-tests. Of those sub-tests, FastBridge Learning recommends a composite of four specific sub-tests to be given per benchmark period. The composite varies from fall, winter, or spring, per grade level to best match reading skill development and reliably assess risk. The composite is typically completed in 5-10 minutes per student. The remaining assessments may be used as needed to further evaluate skill deficits. Results help identify student risk while informing instruction.

Where to Obtain:
Theodore J. Christ & Colleagues, LLC/FastBridge Learning, LLC
info@fastbridge.org
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910, Minneapolis, MN 55402
6122542534
www.fastbridge.org
Initial Cost:
$7.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$7.00 per student per year
Included in Cost:
FAST™ assessments are accessed through an annual subscription offered by FastBridge Learning, priced on a “per student assessed” model. The subscription rate for school year 2017–18 is $7.00 per student. There are no additional fixed costs. FAST subscriptions are all inclusive providing access to: all FAST reading and math assessments for universal screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic purposes including Computer Adaptive Testing and Curriculum-Based Measurement; Behavior and Developmental Milestones assessment tools; the FAST data management and reporting system; embedded online system training for staff; and basic implementation and user support. In addition to the online training modules embedded within the FAST application, FastBridge Learning offers onsite training options. One, two, and three day packages are available. Packages are determined by implementation size and which FAST assessments (e.g., reading, math, and/or behavior) a district intends to use: 1-day package: $3,000.00; 2-day package: $6,000.00; 3-day package: $9,000.00. Any onsite training purchase also includes a complimentary online Admin/Manager training session (2 hours) for users who will be designated as District Managers and/or School Managers in FAST. Additionally, FastBridge offers web-based consultation and training delivered by certified FAST trainers. The web-based consultation and training rate is $200.00/hour.
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extended time in untimed portions of earlyReading. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness.  
Training Requirements:
Less than 1 hour of training
Qualified Administrators:
No minimum qualifications specified.
Access to Technical Support:
Users have access to professional development technicians, as well as ongoing technical support.
Assessment Format:
  • One-to-one
Scoring Time:
  • Scoring is automatic
Scores Generated:
  • Raw score
  • Percentile score
  • Developmental benchmarks
  • Composite scores
  • Subscale/subtest scores
Administration Time:
  • 7 minutes per student
Scoring Method:
  • Automatically (computer-scored)
Technology Requirements:
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection
Accommodations:
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extended time in untimed portions of earlyReading. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness.  

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of your tool:
FAST™ earlyReading is an evidence-based assessment used to screen and monitor student progress. Typically administered in grades PreK-1, they may be used for screening up through grade 3 and for frequent progress monitoring at any grade. Each assessment is designed to be highly efficient and inform instruction. The FAST™ earlyReading assessments are comprised of 12 sub-tests. Of those sub-tests, FastBridge Learning recommends a composite of four specific sub-tests to be given per benchmark period. The composite varies from fall, winter, or spring, per grade level to best match reading skill development and reliably assess risk. The composite is typically completed in 5-10 minutes per student. The remaining assessments may be used as needed to further evaluate skill deficits. Results help identify student risk while informing instruction.
The tool is intended for use with the following grade(s).
selected Preschool / Pre - kindergarten
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
not selected Second grade
not selected Third grade
not selected Fourth grade
not selected Fifth grade
not selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelfth grade

The tool is intended for use with the following age(s).
not selected 0-4 years old
selected 5 years old
selected 6 years old
selected 7 years old
not selected 8 years old
not selected 9 years old
not selected 10 years old
not selected 11 years old
not selected 12 years old
not selected 13 years old
not selected 14 years old
not selected 15 years old
not selected 16 years old
not selected 17 years old
not selected 18 years old

The tool is intended for use with the following student populations.
not selected Students in general education
not selected Students with disabilities
not selected English language learners

ACADEMIC ONLY: What skills does the tool screen?

Reading
Phonological processing:
selected RAN
selected Memory
selected Awareness
selected Letter sound correspondence
selected Phonics
not selected Structural analysis

Word ID
selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Nonword
selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Spelling
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Passage
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed

Reading comprehension:
not selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Other (please describe):


Listening comprehension:
not selected Multiple choice questions
not selected Cloze
not selected Constructed Response
not selected Retell
not selected Maze
not selected Sentence verification
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Expressive
not selected Receptive

Mathematics
Global Indicator of Math Competence
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Early Numeracy
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Concepts
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematics Computation
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Mathematic Application
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Fractions/Decimals
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Algebra
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

Geometry
not selected Accuracy
not selected Speed
not selected Multiple Choice
not selected Constructed Response

not selected Other (please describe):

Please describe specific domain, skills or subtests:
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Which category of behaviors does your tool target?


BEHAVIOR ONLY: Please identify which broad domain(s)/construct(s) are measured by your tool and define each sub-domain or sub-construct.

Acquisition and Cost Information

Where to obtain:
Email Address
info@fastbridge.org
Address
520 Nicollet Mall, Suite 910, Minneapolis, MN 55402
Phone Number
6122542534
Website
www.fastbridge.org
Initial cost for implementing program:
Cost
$7.00
Unit of cost
student
Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:
Cost
$7.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year
Additional cost information:
Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the tool. Provide information on what is included in the published tool, as well as what is not included but required for implementation.
FAST™ assessments are accessed through an annual subscription offered by FastBridge Learning, priced on a “per student assessed” model. The subscription rate for school year 2017–18 is $7.00 per student. There are no additional fixed costs. FAST subscriptions are all inclusive providing access to: all FAST reading and math assessments for universal screening, progress monitoring and diagnostic purposes including Computer Adaptive Testing and Curriculum-Based Measurement; Behavior and Developmental Milestones assessment tools; the FAST data management and reporting system; embedded online system training for staff; and basic implementation and user support. In addition to the online training modules embedded within the FAST application, FastBridge Learning offers onsite training options. One, two, and three day packages are available. Packages are determined by implementation size and which FAST assessments (e.g., reading, math, and/or behavior) a district intends to use: 1-day package: $3,000.00; 2-day package: $6,000.00; 3-day package: $9,000.00. Any onsite training purchase also includes a complimentary online Admin/Manager training session (2 hours) for users who will be designated as District Managers and/or School Managers in FAST. Additionally, FastBridge offers web-based consultation and training delivered by certified FAST trainers. The web-based consultation and training rate is $200.00/hour.
Provide information about special accommodations for students with disabilities.
The FAST™ application is a fully cloud-based system, and therefore computer and Internet access are required for full use of the application. Teachers will require less than one hour of training on the administration of the assessment. A paraprofessional can administer the assessment as a Group Proctor in the FAST application. The application allows for the following accommodations to support accessibility for culturally and linguistically diverse populations: o Enlarged and printed paper materials are available upon request. o Extended time in untimed portions of earlyReading. o Extra breaks as needed. o Preferential seating and use of quiet space. o Proxy responses. o Use of scratch paper. o As part of item development, all items were reviewed for bias and fairness.  

Administration

BEHAVIOR ONLY: What type of administrator is your tool designed for?
not selected General education teacher
not selected Special education teacher
not selected Parent
not selected Child
not selected External observer
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration setting?
not selected Direct observation
not selected Rating scale
not selected Checklist
not selected Performance measure
not selected Questionnaire
not selected Direct: Computerized
selected One-to-one
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Does the tool require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your tool? (Select all that apply)
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

What is the administration context?
selected Individual
not selected Small group   If small group, n=
not selected Large group   If large group, n=
not selected Computer-administered
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

What is the administration time?
Time in minutes
7
per (student/group/other unit)
student

Additional scoring time:
Time in minutes
per (student/group/other unit)

ACADEMIC ONLY: What are the discontinue rules?
not selected No discontinue rules provided
not selected Basals
not selected Ceilings
selected Other
If other, please specify:
Some subtests are timed. These subtests include Letter Names, Letter Sounds, Sight Words, Decodable Words, and Nonsense Words


Are norms available?
Yes
Are benchmarks available?
Yes
If yes, how many benchmarks per year?
3
If yes, for which months are benchmarks available?
September, December, and May
BEHAVIOR ONLY: Can students be rated concurrently by one administrator?
If yes, how many students can be rated concurrently?

Training & Scoring

Training

Is training for the administrator required?
Yes
Describe the time required for administrator training, if applicable:
Less than 1 hour of training
Please describe the minimum qualifications an administrator must possess.
selected No minimum qualifications
Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes
Are training manuals/materials field-tested?
No
Are training manuals/materials included in cost of tools?
Yes
If No, please describe training costs:
Can users obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes
If Yes, please describe how users can obtain support:
Users have access to professional development technicians, as well as ongoing technical support.

Scoring

How are scores calculated?
not selected Manually (by hand)
selected Automatically (computer-scored)
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Do you provide basis for calculating performance level scores?
Yes
What is the basis for calculating performance level and percentile scores?
not selected Age norms
selected Grade norms
not selected Classwide norms
not selected Schoolwide norms
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents

What types of performance level scores are available?
selected Raw score
not selected Standard score
selected Percentile score
not selected Grade equivalents
not selected IRT-based score
not selected Age equivalents
not selected Stanines
not selected Normal curve equivalents
selected Developmental benchmarks
not selected Developmental cut points
not selected Equated
not selected Probability
not selected Lexile score
not selected Error analysis
selected Composite scores
selected Subscale/subtest scores
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Does your tool include decision rules?
If yes, please describe.
Can you provide evidence in support of multiple decision rules?
No
If yes, please describe.
Please describe the scoring structure. Provide relevant details such as the scoring format, the number of items overall, the number of items per subscale, what the cluster/composite score comprises, and how raw scores are calculated.
Each FAST™ earlyReading subtest produces a raw score. The primary score for each subtest is the number of items correct and/or the number of items correct per minute. These raw scores are used to generate percentile ranks. The best estimate of students’ early literacy skills is the FAST™ earlyReading composite score. The composite score consists of multiple subtest scores administered during a universal screening period. The FAST™ earlyReading composite scores were developed as optimal predictors of spring broad reading achievement in Kindergarten and First Grade. A selected set of individual subtest scores were weighted to optimize the predictive relationship between FAST™ earlyReading and broad reading achievement scores. The weighting is specific to each season. It is important to emphasize that the weighting is influenced by the possible score range and the value of the skill. For example, letter sounds is an important skill with a score range of 0 to 60 or more sounds per minute. This represents a broad range of possible scores with benchmark scores that are fairly high (e.g., benchmarks for fall, winter, and spring might be 10, 28, and 42, respectively). In contrast, Concepts of Print has a score range from 0 to 12 and benchmarks are relatively low in value (e.g., benchmarks for fall and winter might be 8 and 11, respectively). As a result of both the score range and the relative value of Concepts of Print to overall early reading performance, the subtest score is more heavily weighted in the composite score. The composite score for Kindergarten students in the fall includes Concepts of Print, Onset Sounds, Letter Sounds, and Letter Naming. The composite score for winter includes Onset Sounds, Letter Sounds, Word Segmenting and Nonsense Words. Finally, for spring of the Kindergarten year, the following subtests are recommended in order to compute an interpretable composite score: Letter Sounds, Word Segmenting, Nonsense Words, and Sight Words (50). The Decodable Words score may be used in place of Nonsense Words for computing any of the composite scores specified. The composite score for First Grade students in the fall includes Word Segmenting, Nonsense Words, Sight Words (150), and Sentence Reading. The composite score for winter includes Word Segmenting, Nonsense Words, Sight Words (150), and CBMreading. Finally, for spring of First Grade, the following subtests are recommended in order to compute an interpretable composite score: Word Segmenting, Nonsense Words, Sight Words (150), and CBMreading. The Decodable Words score may be used in place of Nonsense Words for computing any of the composite scores specified.
Describe the tool’s approach to screening, samples (if applicable), and/or test format, including steps taken to ensure that it is appropriate for use with culturally and linguistically diverse populations and students with disabilities.
The FAST™ earlyReading measure is designed to assess both unified and component skills associated with Kindergarten and First Grade reading achievement. FAST™ earlyReading is intended to enable screening and progress monitoring across four domains of reading (Concepts of Print, Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Decoding) and provide domain-specific assessments of these component skills as well as a general estimate of overall reading achievement. FAST™ earlyReading is an extension of FAST™ CBMreading, which was initially developed by Deno and colleagues to index the level and rate of reading achievement (Deno, 1985; Shinn, 1989). The current version of FAST™ earlyReading has an item bank that contains a variety of items, including those with pictures, words, individual letters and letter sounds, sentences, paragraphs, and combinations of these elements. The research literature provides substantial guidance on instruction and assessment of alphabetic knowledge, phonemic awareness, and oral reading. The objective of FAST™ earlyReading measures is to extend and improve on the quality of currently available assessments. FAST™ earlyReading consists of 12 different evidence-based assessments for screening and monitoring student progress. There are recommended combinations of subtests for fall, winter, and spring screening aimed to optimize validity and risk evaluation. Similarly, there are recommended combinations of subtests for fall, winter, and spring for monitoring of progress. Supplemental assessments may be used to diagnose and evaluate skill deficits. Results from supplemental assessments provide guidance for instructional and intervention development. FAST™ earlyReading is often used by teachers to screen all students and to estimate annual growth with tri-annual assessments (fall, winter, & spring). Students who progress at a typical pace through the reading curriculum meet the standards for expected performance at each point in the year. Students with deficit achievement can be identified in the fall of the academic year so that supplemental, differentiated, or individualized instruction can be provided. FAST™ earlyReading is designed to accommodate quick and easy weekly assessments, which provide useful data to monitor student progress and evaluate response to instruction. The availability of multiple alternate forms for various subtests of FAST™ earlyReading make it suitable for monitoring progress between benchmark assessment intervals (i.e., fall, winter, and spring) for those students that require more frequent monitoring of progress. Onset Sounds has 13 alternate forms, and the following subtests have a total of 20 alternate forms: Letter Naming, Letter Sound, Word Blending, Word Segmenting, Decodable Words, Sight Words, and Nonsense Words. Concepts of Print, Rhyming, and Sentence Reading progress monitoring forms have not yet been developed.

Technical Standards

Classification Accuracy & Cross-Validation Summary

Grade Kindergarten
Grade 1
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Fall Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Winter Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 1 Spring Convincing evidence Convincing evidence
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Fall Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Winter Data unavailable Data unavailable
Classification Accuracy for Criterion 2 Spring Data unavailable Data unavailable
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available

Classification Accuracy - Criterion 1 Spring

Evidence Kindergarten Grade 1
Criterion measure GRADE (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation) GRADE (Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation)
Cut Points - Percentile rank on criterion measure 15 15
Cut Points - Performance score on criterion measure 52.00 45.00
Cut Points - Corresponding performance score (numeric) on screener measure
Classification Data - True Positive (a) 14 8
Classification Data - False Positive (b) 24 11
Classification Data - False Negative (c) 2 1
Classification Data - True Negative (d) 172 104
Area Under the Curve (AUC) 0.95 0.99
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Lower Bound 0.93 0.99
AUC Estimate’s 95% Confidence Interval: Upper Bound 0.97 1.00
Statistics Kindergarten Grade 1
Base Rate 0.08 0.07
Overall Classification Rate 0.88 0.90
Sensitivity 0.88 0.89
Specificity 0.88 0.90
False Positive Rate 0.12 0.10
False Negative Rate 0.13 0.11
Positive Predictive Power 0.37 0.42
Negative Predictive Power 0.99 0.99
Sample Kindergarten Grade 1
Date 2012-13 2012-13
Sample Size 212 124
Geographic Representation West North Central (MN) West North Central (MN)
Male
Female
Other
Gender Unknown
White, Non-Hispanic
Black, Non-Hispanic
Hispanic
American Indian/Alaska Native
Other
Race / Ethnicity Unknown
Low SES
IEP or diagnosed disability
English Language Learner

Reliability

Grade Kindergarten
Grade 1
Rating Convincing evidence Convincing evidence
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Offer a justification for each type of reliability reported, given the type and purpose of the tool.
The first type of reliability evidence we present is test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability assesses the consistency in FAST™ earlyReading Composite scores over a 2-3 week period of time. The second type of reliability evidence we present is internal consistency reliability.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each reliability analysis conducted.
Approximately 80 students in first grade. Students came from Minnesota. Internal consistency reliability of the FASTTM earlyReading Composite was computed based on the 2017-2018 norming sample.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of reliability.
Test-retest reliability coefficients were estimated by calculating the median percent agreement between two teachers scores for each student. Confidence intervals represent 95% confidence intervals. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the FASTTM earlyReading Composite were calculated following Feldt and Brennan (1989), where the reliability coefficient of a composite is a function of the subtest reliabilities, the subtest variances, and the correlations between the subtests. The coefficients below are the median coefficient within a grade level across screening periods.

*In the table(s) below, report the results of the reliability analyses described above (e.g., internal consistency or inter-rater reliability coefficients).

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Do you have reliability data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated reliability data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of reliability analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Validity

Grade Kindergarten
Grade 1
Rating Partially convincing evidence Partially convincing evidence
Legend
Full BubbleConvincing evidence
Half BubblePartially convincing evidence
Empty BubbleUnconvincing evidence
Null BubbleData unavailable
dDisaggregated data available
*Describe each criterion measure used and explain why each measure is appropriate, given the type and purpose of the tool.
The criterion measure for both types of validity analyzes (concurrent and predictive) is the GRADE. The GRADE is a diagnostic reading test that that determines what developmental skills PreK-12 students have mastered and where students need instruction or intervention. The GRADE is a paper and pencil test that can take 50-90 minutes to complete. The GRADE comprises two levels with 10 parallel forms per level. Grade-based norms are provided fall and spring.
*Describe the sample(s), including size and characteristics, for each validity analysis conducted.
Concurrent and predictive analyses with GRADE were conducted on a sample of students from Minnesota. There were 273 students in grades K-1.
*Describe the analysis procedures for each reported type of validity.
Validity coefficients were calculated by computing Pearson product moment correlations between FAST™ earlyReading Composite and the criterion measure. Confidence intervals represent 95% confidence intervals.

*In the table below, report the results of the validity analyses described above (e.g., concurrent or predictive validity, evidence based on response processes, evidence based on internal structure, evidence based on relations to other variables, and/or evidence based on consequences of testing), and the criterion measures.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
No
Provide citations for additional published studies.
Describe the degree to which the provided data support the validity of the tool.
Do you have validity data that are disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, or other subgroups (e.g., English language learners, students with disabilities)?

If yes, fill in data for each subgroup with disaggregated validity data.

Type of Subgroup Informant Age / Grade Test or Criterion n Median Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
95% Confidence Interval
Upper Bound
Results from other forms of validity analysis not compatible with above table format:
Manual cites other published reliability studies:
Provide citations for additional published studies.

Bias Analysis

Grade Kindergarten
Grade 1
Rating No No
Have you conducted additional analyses related to the extent to which your tool is or is not biased against subgroups (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, students with disabilities, English language learners)? Examples might include Differential Item Functioning (DIF) or invariance testing in multiple-group confirmatory factor models.
No
If yes,
a. Describe the method used to determine the presence or absence of bias:
b. Describe the subgroups for which bias analyses were conducted:
c. Describe the results of the bias analyses conducted, including data and interpretative statements. Include magnitude of effect (if available) if bias has been identified.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.