Skillstreaming
Study: Ciechalski & Schmidt (1995)

Summary

Students are placed into several heterogeneous groups and lessons are taught 1 time per week based on identified skill deficiencies using performance feedback, modeling, role playing, and homework. The students maintain notebooks that provide step by step instructions regarding how to perform targeted social skills. --- Skillstreaming employs a four-part training approach—modeling, role-playing, performance feedback, and generalization—to teach essential prosocial skills to children and adolescents. Each book provides a complete description of the Skillstreaming program, with instructions for teaching a wide variety of prosocial skills and a CD including reproducible forms and handouts.*

Target Grades:
K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
Where to Obtain:
Research Press
PO Box 7886 Champaign, IL 61826
217-352-3273/800-519-2707
www.skillstreaming.com
Initial Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

Cost varies depending on resources purchased. Early Childhood* - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Skill Cards (Set of 320 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Student Workbook: $34.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Skill Posters (Set of 40 posters): $79.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 Elementary School* - Skillstreaming in the Elementary School Child: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming DVD-Educator Training: How to Teach Student Prosocial Skills DVD (includes the Elementary & Adolescent program books): $129.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child Student Manual: $14.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child Skill Cards (Set of 480 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 - Skillstreaming in the Elementary School Lesson Plans and Activities: $64.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School child Skill Posters (Set o f60 programs): $79.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child People Skills: Doing ‘em Right!: $99.99 Adolescent* - Skillstreaming the Adolescent: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming DVD-Educator Training DVD (includes the Elementary and Adolescent program books): $129.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Student Manual: $14.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Skill Cards (Set of 400 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Skill Posters (Set of 50 posters): $79.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent People Skills: Doing ‘em Right!: $99.99 Note: Each program book includes: Part 1: Program Content and Implementation Part 2: Skills Outlines and Homework Reports

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
Training Requirements:


Access to Technical Support:
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
  • BI ONLY: A classroom of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Is Technology Required?
No technology is required.

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Students are placed into several heterogeneous groups and lessons are taught 1 time per week based on identified skill deficiencies using performance feedback, modeling, role playing, and homework. The students maintain notebooks that provide step by step instructions regarding how to perform targeted social skills. --- Skillstreaming employs a four-part training approach—modeling, role-playing, performance feedback, and generalization—to teach essential prosocial skills to children and adolescents. Each book provides a complete description of the Skillstreaming program, with instructions for teaching a wide variety of prosocial skills and a CD including reproducible forms and handouts.*

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
not selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
not selected English language learners
not selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
not selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
PO Box 7886 Champaign, IL 61826
Phone Number
217-352-3273/800-519-2707
Website
www.skillstreaming.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
Unit of cost

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Cost varies depending on resources purchased. Early Childhood* - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Skill Cards (Set of 320 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Student Workbook: $34.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood Skill Posters (Set of 40 posters): $79.99 - Skillstreaming in Early Childhood: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 Elementary School* - Skillstreaming in the Elementary School Child: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming DVD-Educator Training: How to Teach Student Prosocial Skills DVD (includes the Elementary & Adolescent program books): $129.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child Student Manual: $14.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child Skill Cards (Set of 480 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 - Skillstreaming in the Elementary School Lesson Plans and Activities: $64.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School child Skill Posters (Set o f60 programs): $79.99 - Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child People Skills: Doing ‘em Right!: $99.99 Adolescent* - Skillstreaming the Adolescent: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book: $46.99 - Skillstreaming DVD-Educator Training DVD (includes the Elementary and Adolescent program books): $129.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Student Manual: $14.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Skill Cards (Set of 400 cards): $32.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent: A Guide for Teaching Prosocial Skills Program Book and Skill Cards: $70.00 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent Skill Posters (Set of 50 posters): $79.99 - Skillstreaming the Adolescent People Skills: Doing ‘em Right!: $99.99 Note: Each program book includes: Part 1: Program Content and Implementation Part 2: Skills Outlines and Homework Reports

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
Minimum number of sessions per week
Minimum number of weeks
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
No

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
DVD player/ computer for Educator Training DVDs

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

not selected Special Education Teacher
not selected General Education Teacher
not selected Reading Specialist
not selected Math Specialist
not selected EL Specialist
not selected Interventionist
not selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
not selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
  

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Study Information

Study Citations

Ciechalski, J. C. & Schmidt, M. W. (1995). The effects of social skills training on students with exceptionalities. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, () 217-222.

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
The sample included the entire population 4th grade students enrolled in two social studies classes at the school where the study was carried out.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
The sample was intentionally heterogeneous and students were included had the designation of being enrolled in special education, general education, and gifted programs.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
A social skills training intervention called “Skillstreaming the Elementary School Child” was implemented by a school counselor. Students in the intervention condition were placed into several heterogeneous groups. Lessons were taught 1 time per week by the school counselor based on identified skill deficiencies using performance feedback, modeling, role playing, and homework. The students maintained notebooks that provided step by step instructions regarding how to perform targeted social skills.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control group received regular social studies instruction.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4 25 24 0.00
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 10 8 0.18
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic
White 15 16 0.18
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 4 3 0.15
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities 3
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 18 21 0.64

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female
Male

Mean Effect Size

0.23

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Half Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
The entire population of fourth-grade students (N = 54) enrolled in two social studies classes participated in this 1-year study. Before the beginning of school, students were assigned to a social studies class based on a stratified random sampling method. One class, the treatment group, included 6 gifted students, 14 regular students, and 7 special education students. The other class, the control group, included 6 gifted, 15 regular, and 6 special education students. Three special education students in the control group and 2 regular students in the treatment group either withdrew or transferred to other schools. Therefore, the participants for this study consisted of 22 students with exceptionalities and 27 regular students. All participants came from the surrounding community and were representative of high and low socioeconomic status.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
selected Small Group
selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
4
Maximum group size
5

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
15.00
Sessions per week
1.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The article specifies that the intervention was delivered by a school counselor. No other relevant information is provided.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
The article makes no reference to treatment fidelity.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
N/A

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
N/A

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Half Bobble
Measures Broader : Dash

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
MANOVA was used to evaluate differences between intervention and control groups.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
No
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Disclaimer

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