Read Right
Study: Scott et al. (2010)

Summary

Read Right® is an intervention program for struggling readers from first grade through adults. It has been used successfully with Special Education students, English Language learners, Title I students, RTI students (Tiers 1, 2, and 3) and with students who wear no labels but read slowly, don’t comprehend as well as they would like to, and/or don’t like to read. Read Right is based on a theoretical model that maintains reading problems are caused when students construct a faulty neural network to guide the process of reading. Grounded in Piaget’s theory of interactive constructivism, the Read Right intervention model relies on the plasticity of the brain to remodel neural circuitry that is operating inappropriately. Even the most challenged students are quickly transformed from poor readers to excellent readers—in a matter of months, not years! Read Right can be delivered to students in two different ways: a Read Right consultant comes to the client school to train school staff to implement the methodology, or Read Right employees provide on-line tutoring for students. Intensive, in-depth training of your staff • Seven weeks (spread over 18 weeks) of effective, hands-on training are provided to school staff in implementing the innovative Read Right methodology. Because the training is hands-on, service to students starts immediately. In addition to becoming highly competent intervention tutors, the trained staff also becomes proficient in performing individual student assessments as well as in using the project management and student management systems, training materials, implementation manuals, reporting systems, and quality assurance systems. • Up to 4 staff members are trained at one time. They can be certified teachers, instructional aides, or a combination of the two. Each adult works with five students during one (preferably daily) tutoring session, which is 40-60 minutes in length. These can be Title I students, special education students, RTI students, English language learners, or any student who isn’t an efficient, effective reader (in any combination). Turn key—Read Right provides everything needed for a successful project! • The Read Right library, consisting of 800+ books and materials needed to implement the methodology • Detailed implementation manuals and training manuals • IEP templates, grading systems, handouts for open house, letters home to parents • The Read Right MP3 System, which includes MP3 players and all the hardware and software required to access the digital audio portion of the library and to manage each tutoring session and continuously collect data required for the monthly reporting system • Systems for project and student management, assessment, quality support and assurance, evaluation, and reporting • Extensive off-site support for on-going quality assurance and collaborative problem-solving when Read Right consultants are not at the client school training Optional Read Right Trainer Training Most clients opt for training a Read Right Trainer so they can bring in-house the expertise required for expansion, staff replacement, and quality assurance. • One Read Right Tutor is trained to be a trainer through a hands-on model in which up to four additional tutors are trained. Read Right On-Line Tutoring Program, an Implementation Alternative The Read Right intervention program can be delivered through direct on-line tutoring of your students rather than through training your staff. This option is perfect for after school programs, potential clients who want to pilot Read Right, home bound students, schools who have limited staffing, or clients who have only small numbers of students. • Students are tutored in groups of four via the internet by Read Right employees. • Each student must have access to a computer with internet connection, a webcam, and a headset. The Read Right Methodology The Read Right methodology consists of four separate components: The Excellent Reading Component, the Coached Reading Component, the Independent Reading Component, and the Critical Thinking Component. Each is described below: The Excellent Reading Component The Role of the Excellent Reading Component Reading problems are caused when a student constructs a faulty neural network to guide the process of reading. Because the network has errors encoded in, it operates inappropriately when it is accessed to read. The result is less than efficient, effective reading. The only way to eliminate a reading problem is to compel the brain to re-model the network. Brains are “plastic,” but they are resistant to remodeling existing networks. The tutoring environment must be precise to facilitate the remodeling work. The patented Read Right® tutoring methodology compels the brain to do this remodeling work, and the Excellent Reading Component is the heart and soul of the methodology. How does the Excellent Reading Component Contribute to the Elimination of the Reading Problem? In the Excellent Reading Component the student is held accountable to read each paragraph excellently, which means the read sounds natural—the pace falls into an acceptable range, the language flows naturally, and the tones sound natural, like conversational speech. Cycling, a prescribed system is the tool that enables the brain to achieve excellence on each paragraph in spite of the reading problem. Keeping the brain stringently accountable to read each paragraph excellently compels the brain to figure out all the implicit aspects of the reading process. Read Right methodology helps students experience excellent reading by enhancing the predictability of text through a process of cycling (repeatedly listening to tape-recorded text interspersed with silent reading). This enables the brain to achieve excellence on each paragraph in spite of the reading problem. As the paragraph becomes more and more predictable with each new cycle, the brain is increasingly likely to experiment with anticipating the author’s meaning as a strategy to produce excellent reading—which is the foundational skill in reading and is exactly what excellent readers do. When the student fails to achieve excellence, it means the implicit experiment his brain conducted to anticipate the author’s message didn’t work, and the brain needs to return to cycling. Achieving excellence means the implicit experiment worked. In both cases, the brain has had a valuable reading lesson. Is It Real? Achieving excellence is impossible if the brain isn’t doing everything exactly right, so in those moments in the Excellent Reading Component when the brain achieves excellence, whether in the silent read or the out loud read, the brain is authentically producing excellent reading. However, it is supported by an artificial environment to enable it to do so. If left to its own devices, the brain would not be able to produce excellent reading because it must read the way the erroneously-operating neural network for reading guides the process. Cycling makes the paragraph highly predictable, creating exactly the kind of artificial environment that will enable the brain to figure out how to anticipate the meaning. As the brain continues to achieve excellence on hundreds of paragraphs, one paragraph at a time, in increasingly complex text, it figures out all the sophisticated, complex aspects of excellent reading and remodels the neural network so it always yields effective, efficient reading and no longer needs an artificial environment to enable it to do so. The Coached Reading Component During the Coached Reading Component of a Read Right® tutoring session, the student reads pages of text out loud while the tutor reads along silently. Symptoms emerge because the neural network built specifically to guide the process of reading is operating inappropriately. The tutor responds to these symptoms as they occur. Read Right® feedback is designed to • Let the brain know that its current reading strategies are not producing the desired results  The feedback produces disequilibration in the brain, thereby strengthening the brain’s intent to figure out how to make excellent reading happen. • Give the brain information that will influence it to experiment with a strategy of anticipating meaning rather than a strategy of word identification. • Provide a venue for the tutor and the student to recognize and acknowledge continuous improvement in his reading ability. Addressing Symptoms During Coached Reading During the Coached Reading Component there are three categories of symptoms that must be addressed. • Text Deviations • Becoming Stuck • Unnatural Cadence Addressing Language Issues During Coached Reading In addition to responding to the emerging symptoms that result from the reading problem, the tutor also responds to any text-related language issues that arise during the Coached Reading Component. These can include: • Unknown vocabulary and concepts • Unknown language conventions  Difficulty pronouncing a word  Difficulty “reading” punctuation  Difficulty reading numbers The Independent Reading Component Students are asked to read independently for a minimum of twenty minutes every day from books checked out of the Read Right independent reading library to ensure they are reading in an appropriate level of text complexity. Independent reading provides a laboratory for experimentation with the new implicit strategies the brain is experimenting with as a result of its participation in the Excellent Reading Component and the Coached Reading Component. The Critical Thinking Component During the Critical Thinking Component of Read Right, students first independently read a selection and answer multiple-choice questions requiring critical thinking to answer. They then join their tutoring group for discussion. If there is disagreement on an answer, each student must defend his answer, explaining why the selected answer is the best one. Students also probe each other’s thinking—trying to convince others that the answers they chose are not the best ones. Consensus on one answer must be reached. The brain, through this type of interaction with others in the group is forced to discover errors in critical thinking and to examine the source of the erroneous thinking. The content of the selection read by the students becomes the bridge that allows the brain to work on the underlying, implicitly-operating process of critical thinking. The students are operating from an explicit awareness of the content, but the brain is focusing on the underlying process that led to an erroneous response. In this way, the brain is compelled to construct sophisticated neural circuitry to guide critical thinking activity.

Target Grades:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with disabilities only
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Other: Autistic, Down’s Syndrome
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Other: Critical Thinking
Where to Obtain:
Read Right Systems, Inc.
310 West Birch Shelton, WA 98584
360-427-9440
www.readright.com
Initial Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

Investment for a Read Right Intervention Project (first semester) The investment for a Read Right Tutor® Training project includes seven weeks of on-site training over 18 school weeks and year-long off-site support and quality assurance. Up to four staff members (paraprofessional or certified) will be trained to tutor and to manage the Read Right project. Each trained tutor will tutor five students at one time Tutor Training Investment of $61,600 includes the off-site support, quality assurance follow-up system and licensing. Support materials investment of $12,300 includes the Read Right Library (800+ books), the training materials, reading consultation materials, quality assurance systems, reporting systems, and the student and project management systems. Shipping and handling are included. TOTAL INVESTMENT FOR TUTOR TRAINING, LIBRARY, & SUPPORT MATERIALS $73,900 ANNUAL LEASE FEE FOR READ RIGHT MP3 SYSTEM (hardware and system & application software) The Read Right MP3 System hardware and the system and application software must be leased on an annual basis. This includes: Computer (Dell OptiPlex 330 with Dual Core Intel Processor, 2gb of RAM, and an 80gb SATA II hard drive), 19” LCD flat screen monitor, and USB hubs & cables. The system software includes Novell Suse Enterprise Desktop Linux and Sun Java 1.6. The application software (Read Right MP3 Server Application) includes class period management, application configuration management, student tutoring process tracking, and the Read Right digital library. ANNUAL LEASING FEE $1,500 Optional Read Right Trainer Training Investment (second semester or second year) The investment for a Read Right Trainer Training project includes five weeks of on-site training time and year-long off-site support and quality assurance. The tutoring capability will be expanded by adding up to four new staff members (paraprofessionals or certified teachers) and training one Read Right certified tutor as a trainer. INVESTMENT FOR TRAINER TRAINING AND EXPANDING THE PROJECT BY TRAINING UP TO FOUR ADDITIONAL TUTORS $44,300 Read Right Is Turn-Key Everything needed to implement a Read Right intervention project, including an extensive library, detailed implementation manuals, and systems for management, assessment, quality assurance, and evaluation is provided. Also included are IEP templates, grading systems, handouts for open house, and letters home to parents. The cornerstone of the Read Right delivery system is the intensive, hands-on training and continuous quality support we provide as school personnel are developing knowledge and skills required to competently implement the Read Right methodology and to manage the project. The hands-on training model makes it possible to deliver services to the targeted students immediately; they don’t have to wait until after the project staff are trained to begin eliminating their reading problems.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other:
Training Requirements:
Hands-on training (students present) for 7 weeks

Criterion-Based training in every aspect of the implementation of the methodology. Professional development credit is available from Central Washington University for Read Right training.


The Read Right methodology is well beyond the field-testing stage. As reported earlier it has been successfully implemented in over 543 school and workforce projects in 43 states, China, and Canada. Projects have been established in elementary schools, middle schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools. Read Right has been successfully implemented for RTI as Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3.

Access to Technical Support:
The monthly reports are examined by Read Right personnel and become the basis of quality assurance activity. Tutors who have students who are progressing slowly are e-mailed or telephoned to brainstorm the cause of the slow movement and to come up with solutions to try. Tutors or Trainers can initiate phone calls or emails at any time with consultants and even with the developer of the methodology and her research assistant. In addition, technical support with the MP3 System is available via email and telephone.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
40
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
2
Minimum Number of Weeks:
9
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Read Right® is an intervention program for struggling readers from first grade through adults. It has been used successfully with Special Education students, English Language learners, Title I students, RTI students (Tiers 1, 2, and 3) and with students who wear no labels but read slowly, don’t comprehend as well as they would like to, and/or don’t like to read. Read Right is based on a theoretical model that maintains reading problems are caused when students construct a faulty neural network to guide the process of reading. Grounded in Piaget’s theory of interactive constructivism, the Read Right intervention model relies on the plasticity of the brain to remodel neural circuitry that is operating inappropriately. Even the most challenged students are quickly transformed from poor readers to excellent readers—in a matter of months, not years! Read Right can be delivered to students in two different ways: a Read Right consultant comes to the client school to train school staff to implement the methodology, or Read Right employees provide on-line tutoring for students. Intensive, in-depth training of your staff • Seven weeks (spread over 18 weeks) of effective, hands-on training are provided to school staff in implementing the innovative Read Right methodology. Because the training is hands-on, service to students starts immediately. In addition to becoming highly competent intervention tutors, the trained staff also becomes proficient in performing individual student assessments as well as in using the project management and student management systems, training materials, implementation manuals, reporting systems, and quality assurance systems. • Up to 4 staff members are trained at one time. They can be certified teachers, instructional aides, or a combination of the two. Each adult works with five students during one (preferably daily) tutoring session, which is 40-60 minutes in length. These can be Title I students, special education students, RTI students, English language learners, or any student who isn’t an efficient, effective reader (in any combination). Turn key—Read Right provides everything needed for a successful project! • The Read Right library, consisting of 800+ books and materials needed to implement the methodology • Detailed implementation manuals and training manuals • IEP templates, grading systems, handouts for open house, letters home to parents • The Read Right MP3 System, which includes MP3 players and all the hardware and software required to access the digital audio portion of the library and to manage each tutoring session and continuously collect data required for the monthly reporting system • Systems for project and student management, assessment, quality support and assurance, evaluation, and reporting • Extensive off-site support for on-going quality assurance and collaborative problem-solving when Read Right consultants are not at the client school training Optional Read Right Trainer Training Most clients opt for training a Read Right Trainer so they can bring in-house the expertise required for expansion, staff replacement, and quality assurance. • One Read Right Tutor is trained to be a trainer through a hands-on model in which up to four additional tutors are trained. Read Right On-Line Tutoring Program, an Implementation Alternative The Read Right intervention program can be delivered through direct on-line tutoring of your students rather than through training your staff. This option is perfect for after school programs, potential clients who want to pilot Read Right, home bound students, schools who have limited staffing, or clients who have only small numbers of students. • Students are tutored in groups of four via the internet by Read Right employees. • Each student must have access to a computer with internet connection, a webcam, and a headset. The Read Right Methodology The Read Right methodology consists of four separate components: The Excellent Reading Component, the Coached Reading Component, the Independent Reading Component, and the Critical Thinking Component. Each is described below: The Excellent Reading Component The Role of the Excellent Reading Component Reading problems are caused when a student constructs a faulty neural network to guide the process of reading. Because the network has errors encoded in, it operates inappropriately when it is accessed to read. The result is less than efficient, effective reading. The only way to eliminate a reading problem is to compel the brain to re-model the network. Brains are “plastic,” but they are resistant to remodeling existing networks. The tutoring environment must be precise to facilitate the remodeling work. The patented Read Right® tutoring methodology compels the brain to do this remodeling work, and the Excellent Reading Component is the heart and soul of the methodology. How does the Excellent Reading Component Contribute to the Elimination of the Reading Problem? In the Excellent Reading Component the student is held accountable to read each paragraph excellently, which means the read sounds natural—the pace falls into an acceptable range, the language flows naturally, and the tones sound natural, like conversational speech. Cycling, a prescribed system is the tool that enables the brain to achieve excellence on each paragraph in spite of the reading problem. Keeping the brain stringently accountable to read each paragraph excellently compels the brain to figure out all the implicit aspects of the reading process. Read Right methodology helps students experience excellent reading by enhancing the predictability of text through a process of cycling (repeatedly listening to tape-recorded text interspersed with silent reading). This enables the brain to achieve excellence on each paragraph in spite of the reading problem. As the paragraph becomes more and more predictable with each new cycle, the brain is increasingly likely to experiment with anticipating the author’s meaning as a strategy to produce excellent reading—which is the foundational skill in reading and is exactly what excellent readers do. When the student fails to achieve excellence, it means the implicit experiment his brain conducted to anticipate the author’s message didn’t work, and the brain needs to return to cycling. Achieving excellence means the implicit experiment worked. In both cases, the brain has had a valuable reading lesson. Is It Real? Achieving excellence is impossible if the brain isn’t doing everything exactly right, so in those moments in the Excellent Reading Component when the brain achieves excellence, whether in the silent read or the out loud read, the brain is authentically producing excellent reading. However, it is supported by an artificial environment to enable it to do so. If left to its own devices, the brain would not be able to produce excellent reading because it must read the way the erroneously-operating neural network for reading guides the process. Cycling makes the paragraph highly predictable, creating exactly the kind of artificial environment that will enable the brain to figure out how to anticipate the meaning. As the brain continues to achieve excellence on hundreds of paragraphs, one paragraph at a time, in increasingly complex text, it figures out all the sophisticated, complex aspects of excellent reading and remodels the neural network so it always yields effective, efficient reading and no longer needs an artificial environment to enable it to do so. The Coached Reading Component During the Coached Reading Component of a Read Right® tutoring session, the student reads pages of text out loud while the tutor reads along silently. Symptoms emerge because the neural network built specifically to guide the process of reading is operating inappropriately. The tutor responds to these symptoms as they occur. Read Right® feedback is designed to • Let the brain know that its current reading strategies are not producing the desired results  The feedback produces disequilibration in the brain, thereby strengthening the brain’s intent to figure out how to make excellent reading happen. • Give the brain information that will influence it to experiment with a strategy of anticipating meaning rather than a strategy of word identification. • Provide a venue for the tutor and the student to recognize and acknowledge continuous improvement in his reading ability. Addressing Symptoms During Coached Reading During the Coached Reading Component there are three categories of symptoms that must be addressed. • Text Deviations • Becoming Stuck • Unnatural Cadence Addressing Language Issues During Coached Reading In addition to responding to the emerging symptoms that result from the reading problem, the tutor also responds to any text-related language issues that arise during the Coached Reading Component. These can include: • Unknown vocabulary and concepts • Unknown language conventions  Difficulty pronouncing a word  Difficulty “reading” punctuation  Difficulty reading numbers The Independent Reading Component Students are asked to read independently for a minimum of twenty minutes every day from books checked out of the Read Right independent reading library to ensure they are reading in an appropriate level of text complexity. Independent reading provides a laboratory for experimentation with the new implicit strategies the brain is experimenting with as a result of its participation in the Excellent Reading Component and the Coached Reading Component. The Critical Thinking Component During the Critical Thinking Component of Read Right, students first independently read a selection and answer multiple-choice questions requiring critical thinking to answer. They then join their tutoring group for discussion. If there is disagreement on an answer, each student must defend his answer, explaining why the selected answer is the best one. Students also probe each other’s thinking—trying to convince others that the answers they chose are not the best ones. Consensus on one answer must be reached. The brain, through this type of interaction with others in the group is forced to discover errors in critical thinking and to examine the source of the erroneous thinking. The content of the selection read by the students becomes the bridge that allows the brain to work on the underlying, implicitly-operating process of critical thinking. The students are operating from an explicit awareness of the content, but the brain is focusing on the underlying process that led to an erroneous response. In this way, the brain is compelled to construct sophisticated neural circuitry to guide critical thinking activity.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Autistic, Down’s Syndrome

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Critical Thinking

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
310 West Birch Shelton, WA 98584
Phone Number
360-427-9440
Website
www.readright.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
Unit of cost

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Investment for a Read Right Intervention Project (first semester) The investment for a Read Right Tutor® Training project includes seven weeks of on-site training over 18 school weeks and year-long off-site support and quality assurance. Up to four staff members (paraprofessional or certified) will be trained to tutor and to manage the Read Right project. Each trained tutor will tutor five students at one time Tutor Training Investment of $61,600 includes the off-site support, quality assurance follow-up system and licensing. Support materials investment of $12,300 includes the Read Right Library (800+ books), the training materials, reading consultation materials, quality assurance systems, reporting systems, and the student and project management systems. Shipping and handling are included. TOTAL INVESTMENT FOR TUTOR TRAINING, LIBRARY, & SUPPORT MATERIALS $73,900 ANNUAL LEASE FEE FOR READ RIGHT MP3 SYSTEM (hardware and system & application software) The Read Right MP3 System hardware and the system and application software must be leased on an annual basis. This includes: Computer (Dell OptiPlex 330 with Dual Core Intel Processor, 2gb of RAM, and an 80gb SATA II hard drive), 19” LCD flat screen monitor, and USB hubs & cables. The system software includes Novell Suse Enterprise Desktop Linux and Sun Java 1.6. The application software (Read Right MP3 Server Application) includes class period management, application configuration management, student tutoring process tracking, and the Read Right digital library. ANNUAL LEASING FEE $1,500 Optional Read Right Trainer Training Investment (second semester or second year) The investment for a Read Right Trainer Training project includes five weeks of on-site training time and year-long off-site support and quality assurance. The tutoring capability will be expanded by adding up to four new staff members (paraprofessionals or certified teachers) and training one Read Right certified tutor as a trainer. INVESTMENT FOR TRAINER TRAINING AND EXPANDING THE PROJECT BY TRAINING UP TO FOUR ADDITIONAL TUTORS $44,300 Read Right Is Turn-Key Everything needed to implement a Read Right intervention project, including an extensive library, detailed implementation manuals, and systems for management, assessment, quality assurance, and evaluation is provided. Also included are IEP templates, grading systems, handouts for open house, and letters home to parents. The cornerstone of the Read Right delivery system is the intensive, hands-on training and continuous quality support we provide as school personnel are developing knowledge and skills required to competently implement the Read Right methodology and to manage the project. The hands-on training model makes it possible to deliver services to the targeted students immediately; they don’t have to wait until after the project staff are trained to begin eliminating their reading problems.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   5

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
40
Minimum number of sessions per week
2
Minimum number of weeks
9
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
An MP3 system including server in which audio files are stored for daily downloading onto each student’s MP3 player for one component of the 4-component intervention. The server also serves as the repository for data entered to track each student’s hours of tutoring and progress in the program (measured in grade-level advancement as determined by the grade-level of books used during the tutoring process). The data are used as the basis for the monthly reports.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
Hands-on training (students present) for 7 weeks

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Criterion-Based training in every aspect of the implementation of the methodology. Professional development credit is available from Central Washington University for Read Right training.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
The Read Right methodology is well beyond the field-testing stage. As reported earlier it has been successfully implemented in over 543 school and workforce projects in 43 states, China, and Canada. Projects have been established in elementary schools, middle schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools. Read Right has been successfully implemented for RTI as Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

The monthly reports are examined by Read Right personnel and become the basis of quality assurance activity. Tutors who have students who are progressing slowly are e-mailed or telephoned to brainstorm the cause of the slow movement and to come up with solutions to try. Tutors or Trainers can initiate phone calls or emails at any time with consultants and even with the developer of the methodology and her research assistant. In addition, technical support with the MP3 System is available via email and telephone.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Study Information

Study Citations

Scott, C., Nelsestuen, K., Autio, E., Deussen, T. & Hanita, M. (2010). Evaluation of Read Right in Omaha Middle and High Schools 2009—2010 . Portland, OR: Education Northwest.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
At each of the four selected schools, a pool of students eligible for Read Right was identified by the school. In order to make the study as close as possible to the typical administration of Read Right in OPS, the district’s typical procedures for identifying eligible students were not changed. To be eligible for Read Right, students had to be at least two grade levels behind in reading according to state reading tests, and/or be an English language learner (ELL) and/or a special education student who participated in regular classes without an aid. For the purposes of the study, eligible students could not have had 10 or more hours of Read Right tutoring in the past. Schools were asked to identify at least 120 students for the pool. Eligible students in this pool were randomly assigned by Education Northwest to either the treatment or control groups in June 2009 using SPSS software. The experimental study continued throughout the fall semester of 2009.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students had to be at least two grade levels behind in reading according to state reading tests, and/or be an ELL and/or a special education student who participated in regular classes without an aide. For the purposes of the study, eligible students could not have had 10 or more hours of Read Right tutoring in the past.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The treatment was a class period of Read Right tutoring in addition to regular English language arts instruction. Regular English language arts instruction varied by teacher in terms of pedagogical approaches but followed a common set of district English language arts standards.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control condition was “business as usual,” (i.e. regular English language arts instruction, which varied by teacher in terms of pedagogical approaches but followed a common set of district English language arts standards).

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7 73 59 0.18
Grade 8 51 54 0.07
Grade 9 88 95 0.10
Grade 10 1 0 0.00
Grade 11 3 0 1.40
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 78 77 0.03
American Indian 4 2 0.43
Asian/Pacific Islander 3 2 0.00
Hispanic 88 86 0.00
White 43 41 0.04
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 170 169 0.03
No Subsidized Lunch 46 39 0.12

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 161 158 0.00

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 39 33 0.09
Not English Language Learner 177 175 0.00

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 115 105 0.10
Male 101 103 0.05

Mean Effect Size

0.16

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Eligible students were randomly assigned by Education Northwest to either the treatment or control groups in June 2009.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Half Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
3
Minimum group size
1
Maximum group size
5

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
12.00
Sessions per week
5.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
40.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Tutors (4 teachers and 12 paraprofessionals) participated in 7 weeks of training over 18 weeks. Each was required to pass a tutoring “test” to be certified. In this test, the tutor was observed during tutoring by a Read Right tutor trainer and rated on performance.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
The four schools that participated in the experimental study were chosen to participate because the tutors had been implementing Read Right the previous year and the district and Read Right expected them to have high implementation. In addition, Read Right classrooms were observed in each school for at least 120 minutes, during the week of October 12, 2009. Observations used an observation protocol designed to measure implementation of Read Right. Observers attended two days of training on how to use the observation protocol. During the first day of the week, evaluators observed at the same school in order to calibrate their observations. By the end of the day, the evaluators had at least 80 percent agreement on all sections of the observation. Analyses of observations showed that Read Right was implemented as outlined in the Read Right tutor manual.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Classroom observations conducted by evaluators revealed the following findings: • All the observations of Read Right met Read Right’s recommendation of five students per tutor. In fact, the average number of students per group was 3 with a range of 1 to 5. • On average during lessons on coached and excellent reading, 75% of class time was spent engaged in the Read Right activities: excellent reading, coached reading, or independent reading. Other activities included recording session information (each student tracks their own reading on a chart), waiting for instructions, off-task behaviors, or other non-instructional activities such as discussion of school activities. • During observations of excellent reading lessons, students’ reading success was judged 62 times (five times on average per students). Observers disagreed with these judgments in only 3 instances. • During coached reading, tutors intervened in students’ reading 41 times (an average of three times per student). In the majority of these interventions, the tutor asked the student to read the text again. Observers found fault with tutors’ interventions in only one instance. • The tutor clarified vocabulary 33 times (an average of three times per student). In only three instances, did the observer note that the vocabulary clarification was not done as specified in the Read Right manual, and in two instances the observer noted that the tutor missed an opportunity to clarify vocabulary. • In critical thinking lessons, students spent 73% of the time either reading or discussing questions about the reading. About two-thirds (65%) of the comprehension questions generated student discussion. For the rest of the discussion questions, all students arrived at the same answer without discussion. Other activities included recording session information (each student tracks their own reading on a chart), waiting for instructions, off-task behaviors, or other non-instructional activities such as discussion of school activities.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Dash
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
Whole Group Analysis. The model for the first analyses of the student achievement variables was represented with the following equation: Y = β0 + β 1[Treatment]+ β 2[Pretest]+ β 3[School1]+ β 4[School2]+ β 5[School3] + e This equation means that students’ posttest scores (the dependent variable) were a function of the following variables: whether students were in the treatment or in the control group (a dichotomous variable), the students’ pretest scores on the same assessment, and which of the four schools the student attended. The analysis “fixed” or held steady the slope for the schools, giving the overall effect of treatment while accounting for prior achievement of students and the effect of the schools in general. School effects. To explore school effects, the data were divided into four datasets, one for each school. For each individual school the following equation was used: Y = β 0 + β 1[Treatment]+ β 2[Pretest] + e This equation means that at each individual school, students’ posttest scores (the dependent variable) were a function of the two variables: whether students were in the treatment or in the control group (a dichotomous variable) and the students’ pretest scores on the same assessment. Effects by subgroups. To determine how the treatment varied by student ethnicity, Education Northwest used five different linear regressions. Each equation used the data only from the subgroup that was being examined (i.e., one equation for African American students, one for whites, one for Latinos, one for ELLs, and one for special education students). All five of these regressions used the following equation: Y = β 0 + β 1[Treatment]+ β 2[Pretest]+ β 3[School1]+ β 4[School2]+ β 5[School3] + e

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

No studies met inclusion requirements for Elementary or Secondary reading. 

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

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