Lexia Core5 Reading
Study: Macaruso & Rodman (2011)

Summary

Lexia© Core5© Reading is a technology-based program that accelerates the development of fundamental literacy skills for students. Core5 was designed for students of all abilities in grades pre-K-5. Following a rigorous scope and sequence, Core5 provides explicit, systematic instruction through personalized learning paths in the areas of phonological awareness, phonics, structural analysis, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Core5 adapts with student performance, targeting skill gaps as they emerge, and equipping teachers with the data and instructional resources they need to personalize instruction for every student. Embedded assessment technology predicts students’ year-end performance and provides ongoing norm-referenced and actionable data to help teachers prioritize and plan instruction with the offline instructional materials. The online student dashboard encourages students to set goals and take ownership of their learning. Core5 can be used by classroom teachers, trained paraprofessionals, and specialists in a variety of onsite and virtual settings. Core5 is most commonly implemented in classroom rotation, computer lab rotation, and 1:1 blended learning models. Because Core5 includes both an online component and prescribed offline resources based on student performance, teachers are empowered to provide students the direct instruction or independent practice they need, creating a true blended learning experience in their classroom. Intended use for the program includes schools and districts that need to: ● prepare students for early literacy requirements; ● support the development of advanced literacy skills in upper elementary students; ● close opportunity or achievement gaps for struggling and non-proficient readers; ● support teacher effectiveness; or ● support English learners in acquiring fundamental literacy skills.

Target Grades:
K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Other: Students working on or above grade level
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Print knowledge/awareness
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Phonological awareness
  • Early decoding abilities
  • Expressive and receptive vocabulary
  • Grammar
  • Syntax
  • Listening comprehension
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Spelling
  • Other: Structural Analysis
  • Spelling
  • Sentence construction
  • Planning and revising
Where to Obtain:
Lexia Learning Systems
200 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
800-435-3942
www.lexialearning.com
Initial Cost:
$40.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$40.00 per student per year

Core5 is sold on an annual, per student or school wide license basis, also giving students access to Core5 Reading. The cost is $40 per student, for less than 250 students, and the price reduces for larger implementations. Included with the purchase are implementation training and professional development with Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers using the program. Additionally, Educator Resources, including guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families are included. Additional professional development and training opportunities are available for purchase and Lexia offers a variety of eLearning, school-level, and district-level partnerships to support all stakeholders to implement Core5 with fidelity. A computer or tablet with internet access is required for use. Headphones are also recommended, but not required, for use in a classroom setting.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other: We have found that the program works best when a number of adults are involved - all of the individuals that typically support the student's reading growth.
Training Requirements:
1-4 hours of initial training, with additional advanced trainings also available

The format of Lexia’s training includes both asynchronous and synchronous training offerings. Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays. On demand resources also include guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families. Lexia’s Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources are included with purchase to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers implementing Core5. These videos provide an overview of Core5’s instructional model, instructional resources, and reports, and include best practices for beginning the school year, as well as for student use of the program at home. In-person or live virtual training is also available to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. These Customer Success partnerships are available in a variety of formats and cadences to address educator, school, and district level needs.


Based on extensive knowledge and experience developing literacy programs, teacher manuals, and instructional materials since Lexia’s founding in 1984, Core5’s training manuals were developed from Lexia’s tested approach and continue to evolve to support teachers and students. Training materials and support services were refined over many years and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. Ongoing feedback is gathered, including survey data at the end of each training session to refine training content and offerings. Lexia has also conducted research studies documenting that support from a Customer Success package is associated with higher levels of student fidelity, leading to stronger overall gains. Educator manuals and guides are updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, Lexia maintains an Educator Resources hub for customers and a Help Center that are continuously updated and expanding to include new topics that have arisen from our field-based team and customers .

Access to Technical Support:
Lexia has developed a variety of Implementation Success Partnership Models to meet the diverse needs of districts and schools as they grow their skills in delivering blended learning reading instruction. The Lexia team of implementation experts will partner with your district and school leadership teams to develop a year-long, personalized implementation plan focused on increasing student reading performance by enhancing leaders’ and teachers’ comfort, skill, and ability to use Lexia’s data and targeted resources to uncover and address student skill deficits. Available to all customers: ● Customer Service Support: available via myLexia chat, email or telephone ● Onboarding Tools: admin and teacher welcome email includes links to: Online Professional Learning Guide, Teacher’s Manuals, Learning Now videos, ● Teacher Resources Hub: various supplemental resources: flashcards, writing prompts, comprehension passages, graphic organizers, certificates, lesson checklists, and more ● Learning Now: videos that provide quick, targeted background knowledge/support ● Help Center: searchable database of common questions and how-tos Additional available services: District Level Partnerships: The Lexia District Level Partnership ensures that the capacity of district stakeholders are appropriately supported so that long-term achievement can be sustained over time. The Lexia team focuses on helping the district receive maximum impact from their investment while helping the district build internal capacity. School Level Partnerships: Lexia believes that strong building level leadership teams are essential to creating and sustaining the successful implementation of any initiative. Therefore, onsite and virtual school level support packages include a dedicated Success Manager who facilitates the following virtual conversations: ● Success Planning Meeting to set goals and develop an implementation plan ● Two (2) Success Metrics Data Review Meetings to review goals, analyze data and plan ● End of Year Review to review progress, reflect on successes and opportunities for growth School Level Educator Support: Lexia believes that educators are lifelong learners always seeking to improve their practice. The Implementation Team provides professional learning sessions and tools to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. Standard onsite or virtual professional learning sessions include: ● Launch: Overview of the student program, myLexia’s Data Reportst, and Key Resources ● Data Coaching: Using Data to Make Educational Decisions ● Instructional Materials: An In-Depth Look at Lexia’s Offline Resources and How to Use Them Technical Support Contact Information for all customers: Online Technical information Help Center: https://help.lexialearning.com/s/technical-info Contact Support; https://help.lexialearning.com/s/contact Call Support: 1-800-507-2772
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
20
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
1
Minimum Number of Weeks:
20
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Lexia© Core5© Reading is a technology-based program that accelerates the development of fundamental literacy skills for students. Core5 was designed for students of all abilities in grades pre-K-5. Following a rigorous scope and sequence, Core5 provides explicit, systematic instruction through personalized learning paths in the areas of phonological awareness, phonics, structural analysis, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Core5 adapts with student performance, targeting skill gaps as they emerge, and equipping teachers with the data and instructional resources they need to personalize instruction for every student. Embedded assessment technology predicts students’ year-end performance and provides ongoing norm-referenced and actionable data to help teachers prioritize and plan instruction with the offline instructional materials. The online student dashboard encourages students to set goals and take ownership of their learning. Core5 can be used by classroom teachers, trained paraprofessionals, and specialists in a variety of onsite and virtual settings. Core5 is most commonly implemented in classroom rotation, computer lab rotation, and 1:1 blended learning models. Because Core5 includes both an online component and prescribed offline resources based on student performance, teachers are empowered to provide students the direct instruction or independent practice they need, creating a true blended learning experience in their classroom. Intended use for the program includes schools and districts that need to: ● prepare students for early literacy requirements; ● support the development of advanced literacy skills in upper elementary students; ● close opportunity or achievement gaps for struggling and non-proficient readers; ● support teacher effectiveness; or ● support English learners in acquiring fundamental literacy skills.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
not selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Students working on or above grade level

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

selected Print knowledge/awareness
selected Alphabet knowledge
selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
selected Grammar
selected Syntax
selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
selected Spelling
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Structural Analysis

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
selected Spelling
selected Sentence construction
selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
200 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
Phone Number
800-435-3942
Website
www.lexialearning.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$40.00
Unit of cost
student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$40.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Core5 is sold on an annual, per student or school wide license basis, also giving students access to Core5 Reading. The cost is $40 per student, for less than 250 students, and the price reduces for larger implementations. Included with the purchase are implementation training and professional development with Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers using the program. Additionally, Educator Resources, including guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families are included. Additional professional development and training opportunities are available for purchase and Lexia offers a variety of eLearning, school-level, and district-level partnerships to support all stakeholders to implement Core5 with fidelity. A computer or tablet with internet access is required for use. Headphones are also recommended, but not required, for use in a classroom setting.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
20
Minimum number of sessions per week
1
Minimum number of weeks
20
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
The Core5 program requires a web-enabled device, such as a desktop computer, laptop, or tablet (7 inches or more – IOS or Andriod). The online component is conducted independently, with one student per device. Reporting on the embedded assessment can be accessed through a web-browser on any device, or through our IOS app myLexia (versions for iPad, iPhone, and Apple Watch). Small group instruction does not require anything more than the printed lesson and pedagogical materials (e.g., picture cards, letter tiles, crayons). If the teacher wishes, however, s/he could view the scripted part of the lesson on a tablet and only print the sheets that require student manipulation. (Core5 technical setup guide: Sample Lessons and Skill Builders: http://lexialearning.com/lrtraining/Core5_LLSB_Sampler_FINAL.pdf; Reports overview: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/Core5_Reports_Flyer_0814_LTR-F-P.pdf )

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
Free

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
1-4 hours of initial training, with additional advanced trainings also available

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
The format of Lexia’s training includes both asynchronous and synchronous training offerings. Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays. On demand resources also include guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families. Lexia’s Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources are included with purchase to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers implementing Core5. These videos provide an overview of Core5’s instructional model, instructional resources, and reports, and include best practices for beginning the school year, as well as for student use of the program at home. In-person or live virtual training is also available to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. These Customer Success partnerships are available in a variety of formats and cadences to address educator, school, and district level needs.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
selected Other

If other, please describe:

We have found that the program works best when a number of adults are involved - all of the individuals that typically support the student's reading growth.
Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Based on extensive knowledge and experience developing literacy programs, teacher manuals, and instructional materials since Lexia’s founding in 1984, Core5’s training manuals were developed from Lexia’s tested approach and continue to evolve to support teachers and students. Training materials and support services were refined over many years and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. Ongoing feedback is gathered, including survey data at the end of each training session to refine training content and offerings. Lexia has also conducted research studies documenting that support from a Customer Success package is associated with higher levels of student fidelity, leading to stronger overall gains. Educator manuals and guides are updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, Lexia maintains an Educator Resources hub for customers and a Help Center that are continuously updated and expanding to include new topics that have arisen from our field-based team and customers .

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Lexia has developed a variety of Implementation Success Partnership Models to meet the diverse needs of districts and schools as they grow their skills in delivering blended learning reading instruction. The Lexia team of implementation experts will partner with your district and school leadership teams to develop a year-long, personalized implementation plan focused on increasing student reading performance by enhancing leaders’ and teachers’ comfort, skill, and ability to use Lexia’s data and targeted resources to uncover and address student skill deficits. Available to all customers: ● Customer Service Support: available via myLexia chat, email or telephone ● Onboarding Tools: admin and teacher welcome email includes links to: Online Professional Learning Guide, Teacher’s Manuals, Learning Now videos, ● Teacher Resources Hub: various supplemental resources: flashcards, writing prompts, comprehension passages, graphic organizers, certificates, lesson checklists, and more ● Learning Now: videos that provide quick, targeted background knowledge/support ● Help Center: searchable database of common questions and how-tos Additional available services: District Level Partnerships: The Lexia District Level Partnership ensures that the capacity of district stakeholders are appropriately supported so that long-term achievement can be sustained over time. The Lexia team focuses on helping the district receive maximum impact from their investment while helping the district build internal capacity. School Level Partnerships: Lexia believes that strong building level leadership teams are essential to creating and sustaining the successful implementation of any initiative. Therefore, onsite and virtual school level support packages include a dedicated Success Manager who facilitates the following virtual conversations: ● Success Planning Meeting to set goals and develop an implementation plan ● Two (2) Success Metrics Data Review Meetings to review goals, analyze data and plan ● End of Year Review to review progress, reflect on successes and opportunities for growth School Level Educator Support: Lexia believes that educators are lifelong learners always seeking to improve their practice. The Implementation Team provides professional learning sessions and tools to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. Standard onsite or virtual professional learning sessions include: ● Launch: Overview of the student program, myLexia’s Data Reportst, and Key Resources ● Data Coaching: Using Data to Make Educational Decisions ● Instructional Materials: An In-Depth Look at Lexia’s Offline Resources and How to Use Them Technical Support Contact Information for all customers: Online Technical information Help Center: https://help.lexialearning.com/s/technical-info Contact Support; https://help.lexialearning.com/s/contact Call Support: 1-800-507-2772

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Macaruso, P., Hook, P.E., & McCabe, R.  (2006). The efficacy of computer-based supplementary phonics programs for advancing reading skills in at-risk elementary students.  Journal of Research in Reading, 29, 162-172.

 

Macaruso, P., & Walker, A. (2008). The efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for advancing literacy skills in kindergarten children. Reading Psychology, 29, 266-287.

 

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2011). Efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for the development of early literacy skills in young children. Reading Psychology, 32, 172-196.

Schechter, R., Macaruso, P., Kazakoff, E.R., & Brooke, E. (2015). Exploration of a Blended Learning Approach to Reading Instruction for Low SES Students in Early Elementary Grades, Computers in the Schools, 32:3-4, 183-200.

 

O’Callaghan, P., McIvor, A., McVeigh, C., & Rushe, T. (2016). A randomized controlled trial of an early intervention, computer-based literacy program to boost phonological skills in 4- to 6-year-old children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 546–558.

 

Wilkes, S., Macaruso, P., Kazakoff, E. & Albert, J. (2016). Exploration of a Blended Learning Approach to Reading Instruction in Second Grade. In Proceedings of EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology 2016 (pp. 822-827). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Vancouver, B.C.

 

Macaruso, P., Wilkes, S., & Prescott J.E. (2020). An investigation of blended learning to support reading instruction in elementary schools. Educational Technology Research and Development. doi:10.1007/s11423-020-09785-2.

Study Information

Study Citations

Macaruso, P. & Rodman, A. (2011). Efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for the development of early literacy skills in young children. Reading Psychology, 32() 172-196.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
The study was conducted in three elementary schools in an urban community north of Boston, MA. Six kindergarten classes from two schools served as the treatment classes and two classes from a third school served as the control classes.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
The Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation, Level K (GRADE) was administered to treatment and control students as a pretest in October/November of 2006 and as a post-test in May/June of 2007. Any student who had a pretest Total Test standard score on the GRADE of 85 or below (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the normed mean of 100) was identified as a low performer.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
100.0%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
All treatment and control classes were engaged in daily reading exercises using explicit phonics instruction based on Scott Foresman Reading Street (McFall, 2007) and/or Bradley Reading and Language Arts. The treatment group used Lexia Learning’s programs -- Early Reading and Primary Reading. Students in both treatment and control classes received 120 minutes of language arts instruction per day.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
All treatment and control classes were engaged in daily reading exercises using explicit phonics instruction based on Scott Foresman Reading Street (McFall, 2007) and/or Bradley Reading and Language Arts. Students in both treatment and control classes received 120 minutes of language arts instruction per day. The control group did not receive computer time with Lexia Learning programs. During the time when treatment students were engaged in CAI use, students in control classes were participating in regular classroom instruction.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten 46.1 % 73.1 % 0.70
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 2.9 %
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander 6.9 % 3.8 % 0.36
Hispanic 22.5 % 26.9 % 0.13
White 13.7 % 42.3 % 0.90
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 41.2 % 42.3 % 0.02
No Subsidized Lunch 4.9 % 30.8 % 1.30

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 46.1 % 73.1 % 0.70

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 16.7 % 23.1 % 0.23
Not English Language Learner 29.4 % 50.0 % 0.54

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 24.5 % 26.9 % 0.06
Male 21.6 % 46.2 % 0.67

Mean Effect Size

0.51

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Empty Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Systematic
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Six kindergarten classes from two schools were selected as treatment classes and two kindergarten classes from a third school served as control classes. All three schools were from the same school district employing the same language arts curriculum.

What was the unit of assignment?
Classes
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
12.00
Sessions per week
3.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
18.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The kindergarten teachers assigned to the treatment classes had previous experience with implementation of the software

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Teachers were instructed to have students use the program 2-3 times per week, each session lasting 15- 20 minutes. The software also tracks sessions completed for each student (number of session and the length of sessions).

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Students in the treatment group were only included in the analyses if they demonstrated adequate use of the CAI program, with a minimum use criterion of 600 minutes (i.e., at least 40 15-minute sessions).

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
One-sample t-tests indicated significant gains for each group. An independent sample t-test comparing mean gain scores for the two groups was significant. An analysis of covariance comparing Total Test scores at post-test using Total Test pretest scores as covariates confirmed the significant group effect.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC & E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Beginning Readers Protocol

Effectiveness: Lexia Reading was found to have potentially positive effects on alphabetics, no discernible effects on fluency, potentially positive effects on comprehension, and no discernible effects on general reading achievement.

Studies Reviewed: 3 studies meet standards out of 4 studies total

Full Report

Evidence for ESSA

Program Outcomes: Three studies evaluated Lexia® Core5® Reading, all of which had positive outcomes but were not significant at the school level. There were significant effects at the student level, however, qualifying Core 5 for the ESSA “Promising” category.

Number of Studies: 3

Average Effect Size: 0.28

Full Report

 

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
3
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Gale, D. (2006). The effect of computer-delivered phonological awareness training on the early literacy skills of students identified as at-risk for reading failure. Retrieved May, 2008 from the University of South Florida website: http://purl.fcla.edu/usf/dc/et/SFE0001531(link is external).

Macaruso, P. & Rodman, A. (2011). Benefits of computer-assisted instruction to support reading acquisition in English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 34, 301-315.

McMurray, S. (2013). An evaluation of the use of Lexia Reading software with children in Year 3, Northern Ireland (6‐to 7‐year olds). Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs13(1), 15-25.

Data Collection Practices

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