Reflex
Study: Rudel (2016)

Summary

Reflex is a game-based adaptive system for math fact acquisition. Individual students login using separate accounts and receive assessment, instruction, and practice tailored to their particular needs based on an internal student model. There is an in-product indicator confirming recommended daily use. Model usage is 3 days a week until students are 100% fluent. Time required to complete individual recommended usage varies by age. For students in grade 2, the median time is approximately 16 minutes a day. The product is intended for use by students in grades 2+. It uses a Fact Family approach that leverages the relationships between addition/subtraction and multiplication/division.

Target Grades:
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Other: Reflex is intended for use by any student with basic understanding of numeracy.
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Computation
  • Whole number arithmetic
Where to Obtain:
ExploreLearning
110 Avon Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 USA
866-882-4141
www.reflexmath.com
Initial Cost:
$3,295.00 per school
Replacement Cost:
$3,295.00 per school per year

Reflex is available in annual licenses that range from per-student teacher licenses, site licenses, or district licenses. All licenses come bundled with professional development. To use Reflex students must have access to the internet and a computer. Multi-year licenses are also available. Reflex also has a grant program that teachers can apply to to get Reflex free for 1 year.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Math Specialist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other: Administering the program only relies on making sure students have the encouragement, time, and technology access to use Reflex.
Training Requirements:
Training not required

Professional Development is bundled with all but the smallest subscriptions. That professional development is often a live webinar presented by ExploreLearning PD personnel. For larger contracts it may include a live on-site training session.


Access to Technical Support:
Users can undertake annual professional development, and there is also a live customer service division that teachers can call, email, or chat with.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
10
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
2
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
No
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Reflex is a game-based adaptive system for math fact acquisition. Individual students login using separate accounts and receive assessment, instruction, and practice tailored to their particular needs based on an internal student model. There is an in-product indicator confirming recommended daily use. Model usage is 3 days a week until students are 100% fluent. Time required to complete individual recommended usage varies by age. For students in grade 2, the median time is approximately 16 minutes a day. The product is intended for use by students in grades 2+. It uses a Fact Family approach that leverages the relationships between addition/subtraction and multiplication/division.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Reflex is intended for use by any student with basic understanding of numeracy.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
not selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:
Reflex uses a Fact Family approach and teaches students the inverse relationship between addition /subtraction and between multiplication/division.

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
110 Avon Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 USA
Phone Number
866-882-4141
Website
www.reflexmath.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$3295.00
Unit of cost
school

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$3295.00
Unit of cost
school
Duration of license
year

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Reflex is available in annual licenses that range from per-student teacher licenses, site licenses, or district licenses. All licenses come bundled with professional development. To use Reflex students must have access to the internet and a computer. Multi-year licenses are also available. Reflex also has a grant program that teachers can apply to to get Reflex free for 1 year.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
not selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
10
Minimum number of sessions per week
2
Minimum number of weeks
selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:
The values above are strictly minimum values for getting significant benefit from the program. Recommended usage for a second or third grade student would be 3 times a week for 15-20 minutes a day for the bulk of the school year. Students in 4th or 5th grade typically require less time. Anticipated usage is for students to use Reflex until they reach 100% fluency, at which point the intervention is complete. (Reflex keeps track of a student's fluency with each individual math fact.)

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
No

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
No
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
Free

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
Training not required; 90 minutes recommended

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Professional Development is bundled with all but the smallest subscriptions. That professional development is often a live webinar presented by ExploreLearning PD personnel. For larger contracts it may include a live on-site training session.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
not selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
not selected EL Specialist
not selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Administering the program only relies on making sure students have the encouragement, time, and technology access to use Reflex.
Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Users can undertake annual professional development, and there is also a live customer service division that teachers can call, email, or chat with.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Sarrell, D. M. (2014). The effects of Reflex math as a response to intervention strategy to improve math automaticity among male and female at-risk middle school students. Liberty University.

 

Rudel, David (2018) Evaluating Effect of Reflex on Math Fact Fluency in  Grades 2 & 3. Retrieved from https://el-gizmos.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/Florida_RCT_2016.pdf

 

Rudel, David (2018) Additional Subpopulation Analysis. Retrieved from https://el-gizmos.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/Florida_RCT_2016_Addendum.pdf

Study Information

Study Citations

Rudel, D. I. Effect of Reflex on Math Fact Fluency in Grades 2 & 3. ExploreLearning. To obtain: The report is available at https://el-gizmos.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/Florida_RCT_2016.pdf . An addendum is hosted at https://el-gizmos.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/Florida_RCT_2016_Addendum.pdf (note that https must be used, not http).

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Teachers were asked to volunteer for the study from a school in Florida. The participating students were from the classes of these teachers. Students who were identified before the study began as not being ready for math fact acquisition were not included. (The concern was that these students would be unlikely to receive math fact fluency instruction in the treatment condition, leading to an unfair comparison.)

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students who had fewer than 10 digits correct per minute at pretest (across 3 1-minute probes) were identified as at-risk for failure in mathematics. This is the threshold for M-CBM screening cut-off provided by the National Institute on Response to Intervention (Fuchs and Fuchs). PLEASE NOTE: The school did not provide data on at-risk students or percentiles on normed achievement tests, so we are only using the above criterion when reporting percentage of at-risk students in the population. However, given the large percentage of traditionally under-served populations in the study, we expect the percentage of students who would be deemed "at-risk" based on achievement test percentiles would be far higher than the percentage tendered below. We are providing sub-population analyses on Hispanic, LEP, and SES students to show the effect of Reflex on these populations.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
8.0%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
Students in classes where there was any use of Reflex.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Students in classes that had no use of Reflex.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2 34 33 0.00
Grade 3 31 31 0.02
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 2 4 0.44
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander 10 12 0.17
Hispanic 36 34 0.05
White 15 14 0.03
Other 2 0 2.08

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 12 14 0.15
No Subsidized Lunch 43 40 0.05

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 10 16 0.39
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 39 30 0.29
Male 26 34 0.34

Mean Effect Size

0.33

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

A full HLM model incorporating all demographic information was constructed as well as reduced versions where non-dispositive factors were removed. All models are included in the appendix and were analyzed for statistical significance and effect size. We provide separate ANCOVA analyses for subpopulations of English Language Learner, Free/Reduced Lunch, and Hispanic populations.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Random numbers were generated by a Python program by a blinded analyst. NOTE: This study was intended as an RCT but was compromised (see page 6 of full text ) in the case of 1 of the teachers.

What was the unit of assignment?
Classes
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:
There were 8 participating classes. Random assignments were made based on the names of the homeroom teachers provided to project personnel. However, due to departmentalization, two of the classes (1 treatment and 1 comparison) had the same math teacher.

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:
Each student was analyzed individually as part of a 2-level HLM model with clusters as the higher level unit.

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
14.00
Sessions per week
2.70
Duration of sessions in minutes
21.80
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
4 of the 7 teachers had master's degrees (3 classes in treatment, 1 class in comparison). The other 3 teachers had bachelor's degrees. The number of years of teaching experience among treatment classes were {21, 13, 2, "15 or more"}. The number of years of teaching experience across comparison groups were {5, 15 or more, 15 or more, 15 or more}. (We relied on testimony from the math coach for those teachers who did not return information on background, and several teachers were at the school prior to her being there, so "15 or more" was all the information we could get for those teachers.) All teachers in the program condition received training on using Reflex.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
All work in Reflex occurs within the Reflex system, so session logs were consulted to derive information on usage.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
One class had poor usage in general (average 1.5 days/week), one class had reasonable usage (2.7 days/week), and two had good usage (3.3 and 3.4 days/week). However, these averages can be misleading since some students elected to play outside of school and had many days of usage, skewing the average. Overall, approximately 30% of the students in the study had poor usage (<1.6 days/week), 15% had reasonable-to-good usage (1.7-2.5 days/week) and the rest had near-model to model usage. (>2.5 days/week).

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
No.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Dash

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
selected English language learners
selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
An HLM analysis was conducted to determine the effects of binary and continuous variables as well as their interactions for the full population. The only covariates with statistically significant effects were age and pretest scores. The comparison and treatment groups were statistically similar with regard to these variables. The values we have reported are those from the full model. For demographic sub-analyses, all statistically significant covariates were kept. These are detailed in the addendum. Due to the smaller numbers of students in these populations, a simple ANCOVA was used rather than an HLM.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
In addition to the pretest and posttest, the study included an interim test taken approximately 60% of the way through the study. There were 8 participants absent from the posttest (5 from the treatment, 3 from the comparison group). Of these 8 students, 7 were present for the interim assessment. An ordinary least squares regression was used to impute posttest scores based on interim and pretest scores as well as demographic covariates. (See page 16 of full text.) The full text also provides a no-imputation analysis that does not consider students absent at posttest.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
An HLM model was constructed with clusters (classes) at the upper level and individual variables at the lower level. Statistical significance and effect size were based on the size and t-value for the intervention's coefficient within that analysis. For subpopulation analyses, a simply ANCOVA was used, and the strength and statistical significance of the effect was measured based on the coefficient of the intervention categorical variable.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

No studies met inclusion requirements.

 

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Disclaimer

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