Check & Connect
Study: Maynard et al. (2014)

Summary

Check & Connect is a comprehensive intervention designed to enhance student engagement at school and with learning for marginalized, disengaged students in grades K-12, through relationship building, problem solving and capacity building, and persistence. A goal of Check & Connect is to foster school completion with academic and social competence. Check & Connect is implemented by a trained mentor whose primary goal is to keep education a salient issue for disengaged students and their teachers and family members. The mentor works with a caseload of students and families over time and follows their caseload from program to program and school to school. The Check & Connect trained mentor continuously:  -Checks on students, assessing their engagement with school and learning through close monitoring of their attendance, behavior, and grades; and  -Connects with students, offering individualized intervention in partnership with school personnel, families, and community service provider

Target Grades:
K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with disabilities only
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Physical Aggression
  • Verbal Threats
  • Property Destruction
  • Noncompliance
  • High Levels of Disengagement
  • Disruptive Behavior
  • Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
  • School Phobia
Where to Obtain:
Martha Thurlow, Sandra Christenson, Mary Sinclair, David Evelo, and Helen Thornton - University of Minnesota
Institute on Community Integration 6 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Dr. SE Minneapolis, MN
651-625-5322
http://checkandconnect.umn.edu/
Initial Cost:
$1,400.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$1,400.00 per student per year

Basic pricing/cost: Implementing Check & Connect (C&C) in secondary schools cost about $1,400 a student per year in the 2001–02 school-year; utilizing full-time dedicated mentors with a caseload of 35-45 students per mentor. The primary cost of the program is the allocation of time or resources for the Check & Connect mentor. If the C&C mentor is a full-time dedicated mentor, then the primary cost is the salary and benefits for person to work with a caseload of 35-45 students. If existing staff members (e.g., teachers, educational support staff, office staff, etc.) are utilized as mentors in addition to their full-time position, then the allocation of time (approximately 45 minutes per student per week) necessary to mentor each mentee by staff member is the primary cost of implementation, whether or not they are monetarily compensated. Some sites also provide an annual stipend for existing staff. Basic structure: The basic structure of the program includes having a Check & Connect coordinator at the site level (e.g., school building, school district, or community organization) to provide administrative leadership and ongoing professional development for the mentors. If dedicated mentors are utilized, typically there are .5 FTE – 2 FTE Check & Connect mentors in each school building, depending on the size and needs of each school. If existing staff members are utilized, the typical structure would include a lead mentor or a Check & Connect coordinator in each building, due to the increased number of mentors necessary at each site.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other:
Training Requirements:
More than 8 hours of training.

Implementing Check & Connect with fidelity helps schools and organizations optimize outcomes. To that end, we offer a comprehensive manual (Christenson, et.al.) as well as several training and consultation options for sites considering or already implementing Check & Connect. The Institute on Community Integration (ICI) maintains a cadre of experienced, professional trainers to provide these services. A train-the-trainer option is also available. Although the manual may be purchased separately and may be sufficient for implementing Check & Connect, training and consultation is highly encouraged to ensure fidelity of implementation. Participants of Check & Connect 1 or 2 day trainings receive the printed manual, a printed participant guide of supplemental materials, and access to electronic implementation forms (i.e., the Check & Connect monitoring form). Sites that contract for customized on-site training also receive consultation support following their training. Training options are described in further detail below. Administrative/leadership training: Check & Connect Preparation and Implementation Training is a 1-day training that provides education administrators and lead staff (decision-making stakeholders) with a thorough overview of Check & Connect and its background as well as information about how to prepare their site for implementing Check & Connect. Participants learn about and understand:  The core components and elements of Check & Connect  The context for Check & Connect, including the process of disengagement and the risk factors associated with dropping out  How Check & Connect was developed, its theoretical underpinnings, and its evidence base  Steps for preparing for and implementing Check & Connect at their sites  Aligning Check & Connect with current initiatives  Identifying the indicators of disengagement at their site  Designating a coordinator and hiring mentors  Systematically monitoring student data and identifying appropriate interventions for reengaging students  Strengthening the family-school relationship  Monitoring the person-environment fit  Evaluating the implementation and effectiveness of Check & Connect at their site Mentor (interventionist) training: Check & Connect Mentor Training is a 2-day in-depth, competency-based training designed to provide Check & Connect mentors with the information, competencies, and skills needed to be an effective Check & Connect mentor at their local site. Participants learn about and understand—  The core components and elements of Check & Connect  The role and expectations of the Check & Connect mentor  The population of students they are mentoring and how to best meet their needs  How to implement the "Check" and "Connect" procedures with fidelity  The competencies and skills needed to be an effective mentor, such as:  Building relationships with students, families, and school personnel  Using data to determine interventions  Reflective listening  Problem–solving  Engaging with families Follow-up Workshop: Check & Connect Fidelity of Implementation Follow-up is a workshop designed for sites already implementing Check & Connect or components of Check & Connect. Coordinators, mentors, and other stakeholders join a Check & Connect trainer for an intensive 1-day reflection and professional development session designed to identify and celebrate what is working well, address priority skill development areas, renew commitment to Persistence Plus — a key element of Check & Connect — and plan for continued fidelity of implementation.


The training manuals/materials have been field-tested in three published randomized control trials (RCT) as described in following sections and three RCTs funded by IES are in progress.

Access to Technical Support:
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
15
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
1
Minimum Number of Weeks:
36
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
No technology is required.

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Check & Connect is a comprehensive intervention designed to enhance student engagement at school and with learning for marginalized, disengaged students in grades K-12, through relationship building, problem solving and capacity building, and persistence. A goal of Check & Connect is to foster school completion with academic and social competence. Check & Connect is implemented by a trained mentor whose primary goal is to keep education a salient issue for disengaged students and their teachers and family members. The mentor works with a caseload of students and families over time and follows their caseload from program to program and school to school. The Check & Connect trained mentor continuously:  -Checks on students, assessing their engagement with school and learning through close monitoring of their attendance, behavior, and grades; and  -Connects with students, offering individualized intervention in partnership with school personnel, families, and community service provider

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
not selected Any student at risk for academic failure
selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
not selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

selected Physical Aggression
selected Verbal Threats
selected Property Destruction
selected Noncompliance
selected High Levels of Disengagement
selected Disruptive Behavior
selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

selected Depression
selected Anxiety
selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
Institute on Community Integration 6 Pattee Hall, 150 Pillsbury Dr. SE Minneapolis, MN
Phone Number
651-625-5322
Website
http://checkandconnect.umn.edu/

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$1400.00
Unit of cost
student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$1400.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Basic pricing/cost: Implementing Check & Connect (C&C) in secondary schools cost about $1,400 a student per year in the 2001–02 school-year; utilizing full-time dedicated mentors with a caseload of 35-45 students per mentor. The primary cost of the program is the allocation of time or resources for the Check & Connect mentor. If the C&C mentor is a full-time dedicated mentor, then the primary cost is the salary and benefits for person to work with a caseload of 35-45 students. If existing staff members (e.g., teachers, educational support staff, office staff, etc.) are utilized as mentors in addition to their full-time position, then the allocation of time (approximately 45 minutes per student per week) necessary to mentor each mentee by staff member is the primary cost of implementation, whether or not they are monetarily compensated. Some sites also provide an annual stipend for existing staff. Basic structure: The basic structure of the program includes having a Check & Connect coordinator at the site level (e.g., school building, school district, or community organization) to provide administrative leadership and ongoing professional development for the mentors. If dedicated mentors are utilized, typically there are .5 FTE – 2 FTE Check & Connect mentors in each school building, depending on the size and needs of each school. If existing staff members are utilized, the typical structure would include a lead mentor or a Check & Connect coordinator in each building, due to the increased number of mentors necessary at each site.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
not selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
15
Minimum number of sessions per week
1
Minimum number of weeks
36
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?
Yes

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
No

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
At-cost

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
More than 8 hours of training.

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Implementing Check & Connect with fidelity helps schools and organizations optimize outcomes. To that end, we offer a comprehensive manual (Christenson, et.al.) as well as several training and consultation options for sites considering or already implementing Check & Connect. The Institute on Community Integration (ICI) maintains a cadre of experienced, professional trainers to provide these services. A train-the-trainer option is also available. Although the manual may be purchased separately and may be sufficient for implementing Check & Connect, training and consultation is highly encouraged to ensure fidelity of implementation. Participants of Check & Connect 1 or 2 day trainings receive the printed manual, a printed participant guide of supplemental materials, and access to electronic implementation forms (i.e., the Check & Connect monitoring form). Sites that contract for customized on-site training also receive consultation support following their training. Training options are described in further detail below. Administrative/leadership training: Check & Connect Preparation and Implementation Training is a 1-day training that provides education administrators and lead staff (decision-making stakeholders) with a thorough overview of Check & Connect and its background as well as information about how to prepare their site for implementing Check & Connect. Participants learn about and understand:  The core components and elements of Check & Connect  The context for Check & Connect, including the process of disengagement and the risk factors associated with dropping out  How Check & Connect was developed, its theoretical underpinnings, and its evidence base  Steps for preparing for and implementing Check & Connect at their sites  Aligning Check & Connect with current initiatives  Identifying the indicators of disengagement at their site  Designating a coordinator and hiring mentors  Systematically monitoring student data and identifying appropriate interventions for reengaging students  Strengthening the family-school relationship  Monitoring the person-environment fit  Evaluating the implementation and effectiveness of Check & Connect at their site Mentor (interventionist) training: Check & Connect Mentor Training is a 2-day in-depth, competency-based training designed to provide Check & Connect mentors with the information, competencies, and skills needed to be an effective Check & Connect mentor at their local site. Participants learn about and understand—  The core components and elements of Check & Connect  The role and expectations of the Check & Connect mentor  The population of students they are mentoring and how to best meet their needs  How to implement the "Check" and "Connect" procedures with fidelity  The competencies and skills needed to be an effective mentor, such as:  Building relationships with students, families, and school personnel  Using data to determine interventions  Reflective listening  Problem–solving  Engaging with families Follow-up Workshop: Check & Connect Fidelity of Implementation Follow-up is a workshop designed for sites already implementing Check & Connect or components of Check & Connect. Coordinators, mentors, and other stakeholders join a Check & Connect trainer for an intensive 1-day reflection and professional development session designed to identify and celebrate what is working well, address priority skill development areas, renew commitment to Persistence Plus — a key element of Check & Connect — and plan for continued fidelity of implementation.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
Yes   

If yes, please describe: 

Youth development, education, social work, or related area.

Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
The training manuals/materials have been field-tested in three published randomized control trials (RCT) as described in following sections and three RCTs funded by IES are in progress.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Strand, P. S., & Lovrich, N. P. (2014). Graduation outcomes for truant students: An evaluation of a school-based, court-engaged community truancy board with case management. Children and Youth Services Review43, 138-144.

 

Maynard, B. R., Kjellstrand, E. K., & Thompson, A. M. (2013). Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 00(0)1-14

 

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., & Thurlow, M. L. (2005). Promoting school completion of urban secondary youth with emotional or behavioral disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71(4), 465-482.

 

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., Evelo, D. L., & Hurley, C.M. (1998). Dropout prevention for youth with disabilities: Efficacy of a sustained school engagement procedure. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 7-21.

Study Information

Study Citations

Maynard, B. R., Kjellstrand, E. K. & Thompson, A. M. (2014). Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 00(0) 1-14.

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Students must have (1) not been previously enrolled in a dropout prevention program called Communities in Schools (CIS), a non-profit organization, (2) met one or more of the criteria on the Texas Education Agency at-risk eligibility list or referred for family crisis, (3) demonstrated absenteeism. These students came from schools that (1) had contracted with CIS to provide case management and dropout prevention services. In addition, the school was a either middle or high school and the school approved both the implementation of the C&C program.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
All students met one or more of the criteria on the Texas Education Agency at-risk eligibility list or referred for family crisis. The researchers did not specify whether these students had an IEP plan.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The treatment group received Check & Connect intervention, which consisted of Check and Connect components. The check component involves regularly monitoring student data related to risk indicators such as attendance. The connect component involves basic and intensive intervention based on students’ individual needs. The Check & Connect model is delivered by an adult “monitor” who uses a case management approach to work with students and their families during the intervention. The primary goal of the monitor is “to keep education a salient issue for the student, his or her family members, and teachers, and to reduce and prevent the occurrence of absenteeism, suspension, failing grades and other warning signs of school withdrawal” (Sinclaire et al., 1998, p.10). The monitor works with students and families on his or her case load to promote school management by building and maintaining relationships, monitoring student data related to alterable risk indicators, and implementing individualized interventions with students and families based on the data.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Students in the control group were not exposed to C&C intervention.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6 17 20 0.15
Grade 7 13 15 0.12
Grade 8 21 19 0.05
Grade 9 19 24 0.22
Grade 10 5 8 0.26
Grade 11 7 5 0.14
Grade 12 7 9 0.22

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 13 7 0.34
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 76 93 0.46
White
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 64 76 0.29
No Subsidized Lunch 25 24 0.00

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female
Male

Mean Effect Size

0.20

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
This study used a randomized block design. Eligible students were randomly assigned to the treatment or a control group.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
30.00
Sessions per week
1.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Mentors are CIS sites coordinators who had been employed with CIS for a mean of 4.38 years who had a background in the field of psychology, counseling, or social work. 64% of the mentors had a master’s degree and 36% held a bachelor degree. All mentors received a full-day training on the C&C intervention, which consisted of didactic components and role-playing. Additionally, interventionists were also provided with a half-day booster training.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Fidelity was not measured. However, it was closely monitored over the course of the study to ensure the intervention was being implemented as intended. The researchers also noted that Check and Connect is a well-specified intervention with an intervention manual that provides for standardization, reduces variability of implementation, and provides sufficient information for the intervention to be replicated and compared across the studies, thus enhancing internal and external validity. In addition, the Check & Connect monitors in this study were trained and monitored to enhance the adherence of the implementation, reduce implementer drift, and connect any deviations from the intervention in real time over the course of the study.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Quantitative information on the fidelity of treatment implementation was not reported.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
Fidelity measure was not used in the control classrooms.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Half Bobble
Measures Broader : Dash

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
A hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used for analysis to account for the fact that students are nested in schools. Note that the researchers did not reported adjusted and unadjusted means of posttreatment outcome data. However, the authors reported the β value as an indicator of effect size (see table 2 on page 8). For example, this study showed that Check & Connect was positively related to improvements in posttest student academic performance, β = 1.547 (p = .043), 95% CI [.047,3.048).

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Dropout Prevention Protocol

Effectiveness: Check & Connect was found to have positive effects on staying in school, potentially positive effects on progressing in school, and no discernible effects on completing school for high school students with learning, behavioral, or emotional disabilities.

Studies Reviewed: 2 studies meet standards out of 3 studies total

Full Report

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
4
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Maynard, B. R., Kjellstrand, E. K., & Thompson, A. M. (2013). Effects of Check and Connect on Attendance, Behavior, and Academics: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 00(0)1-14.

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., Evelo, D. L., & Hurley, C.M. (1998). Dropout Prevention for Youth with Disabilities: Efficacy of a Sustained School Engagement Procedure. Exceptional Children, 65(1), 7-21.

Sinclair, M. F., Christenson, S. L., & Thurlow, M. L. (2005). Promoting School Completion of Urban Secondary Youth with Emotional or Behavioral Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71(4), 465-482.

Strand, P. S., & Lovrich, N. P. (2014). Graduation Outcomes for Truant Students: An Evaluation of a School-Based, Court-Engaged Community Truancy Board with Case Management. Children and Youth Services Review, 43, 138-144.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.