Read Naturally
Study: Christ & Davie (2009)

Summary

The Read Naturally strategy develops fluency, supports vocabulary, and promotes comprehension by combining the research-based strategies of teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring. A student works on fluency at his or her own pace in an appropriate level of material. The student masters a story by reading along with audio and then practicing the story until he or she can read it accurately and with expression at a goal rate. The student tracks progress on a graph.ck here to enter text.

Target Grades:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
Where to Obtain:
Candyce Ihnot/ Read Naturally
2945 Lone Oak Dr, Suite 190, St. Paul, MN 55121
(651) 452-4085
www.readnaturally.com
Initial Cost:
$129.00 per level
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

Encore $129 per level; 30 seats of Read Live $599; Network Plus Software levels $399 each Read Live is a yearly subscription; Encore and Network Plus software one time purchase.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
Training Requirements:
1 day of training

Read Naturally provides live full day seminars, video workshops and self study training books.


Over the past 21 years, the manuals have been updated and revised numerous times based on teacher input.

Access to Technical Support:
Professional educators and technical support staff are available five days a week to support teachers and technical staff.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
30
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
3
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

The Read Naturally strategy develops fluency, supports vocabulary, and promotes comprehension by combining the research-based strategies of teacher modeling, repeated reading, and progress monitoring. A student works on fluency at his or her own pace in an appropriate level of material. The student masters a story by reading along with audio and then practicing the story until he or she can read it accurately and with expression at a goal rate. The student tracks progress on a graph.ck here to enter text.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
2945 Lone Oak Dr, Suite 190, St. Paul, MN 55121
Phone Number
(651) 452-4085
Website
www.readnaturally.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$129.00
Unit of cost
level

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Encore $129 per level; 30 seats of Read Live $599; Network Plus Software levels $399 each Read Live is a yearly subscription; Encore and Network Plus software one time purchase.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
30
Minimum number of sessions per week
3
Minimum number of weeks
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
The Encore version requires a CD player. The software version is standalone software CD or a school network version. Read Live is an online web based version.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
1 day of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Read Naturally provides live full day seminars, video workshops and self study training books.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
not selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
Yes   

If yes, please describe: 

Reading

Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Over the past 21 years, the manuals have been updated and revised numerous times based on teacher input.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Professional educators and technical support staff are available five days a week to support teachers and technical staff.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Christ, T. J. & Davie, J. (2009). Empirical evaluation of Read Naturally effects: A randomized control trial (RCT). (unpublished manuscript). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Hasbrouk, J. E., Ihnot, C., & Rogers, G. H. (1999). Read Naturally: A strategy to increase oral reading fluency. Reading Research and Instruction (39), 1, 27-38.        

Heistad, D. (2004). The effects of Read Naturally on fluency and reading comprehension: A supplemental service study (four-school study). (unpublished manuscript). Minneapolis, MN.     

Heistad, D. (2004). The effects of Read Naturally on fluency and reading comprehension: A supplemental service study (two-school study). (unpublished manuscript). Minneapolis, MN.                   

Heistad, D. (2004). The effects of Read Naturally on grade 3 reading: A study in the Minneapolis public schools. (unpublished manuscript). Minneapolis, MN.                                                                                                                                                      

Study Information

Study Citations

Christ, T. J. & Davie, J. Empirical Evaluation of Read Naturally Effects: A Randomized Control Trial (RCT). To obtain: Contact Dr. Theodore J. Christ at the University of Minnesota by e-mail tchrist@umn.edu or phone 612-624-7068

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
A total of 109 third grade students (60 male, 49 female) from six schools in four Midwestern suburban school districts participated in the study. The schools had not previously used the Read Naturally program. Of the students, 10% were receiving special education services, 23% were English Language Learners (ELL), and 60% received free or reduced lunch. A total of 42% of the students were White, 28% were African American, 23% were Hispanic, 6% were Asian American, and 1% were American Indian. All participants performed at or below the 40th percentile on a measure of oral reading fluency administered in the fall of third grade (DIBELS or AIMSweb), as well as at or below the 40th percentile on a measure of reading comprehension administered at the end of second grade (the Measures of Academic Progress test). Students who qualified for the study, and whose parents gave permission for them to participate, were randomly assigned within their classrooms to the control group (54 students) or the intervention group (55 students). Control group students continued to experience the reading instruction typical of their classroom with no supplemental fluency instruction. Estimates within group for both verbal ability (PPVT-4) and processing ability (CTOPP) are presented in Table 1.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students were eligible for participation if their performance was at or below the 40th percentile on both the DIBELS and Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) reading test.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
Read Naturally Software Edition was used to improve reading fluency. We also monitored reading accuracy and comprehension; however, only fluency was the target for intervention. The daily procedure for the Read Naturally Software Edition (SE) is as follows: 1. Select a Story: Students click a picture to select a story to read at their appropriate level; 2. Read Along to the Key Words: Students click on each of the vocabulary words to hear them pronounced and to learn what they mean. Students should read along as the words are pronounced and read the student-friendly definitions along with the narrator; 3. Write a Prediction: Students use the story illustration, key words, and title to write one or more sentences about what they think the story will say about the topic; 4. Cold Timing: The students are timed reading the unpracticed story aloud for one minute. Students are instructed to click difficult words (words they stop in front of, skip, or stumble on) as they read. The SE subtracts the number of errors, determined by the number of words the student clicks on, from the total number of words read to calculate their cold timing or baseline score. A graph displays their cold timing score in blue; 5. Read Along to the Story: The student reads along quietly while the SE plays a recording of the story. A highlighted reading guide automatically moves along to each sentence of the story as the student reads along with the synchronized audio recording. Subvocalizing along with the narrator on the recording ensures that students actually read along, and it helps them learn proper pronunciation, expression, and phrasing. This component is designed to build word recognition and word reading accuracy in preparation for subsequent reading practice. The SE includes three recordings appropriate to the readability level of the selected story, each one slightly faster than the previous one. Teachers can customize the read-along step for each student by adjusting the number of read alongs and selecting the reading speeds; 6. Practice Reading the Story: Students practice reading the story independently without the recording multiple times until they can read at the predetermined goal rate. A highlighted reading guide helps students focus on one line at a time, and students may click on a difficult word to hear the word pronounced during practice. The SE times each practice and indicates when students are ready to pass the timed reading by allowing them to move on to the next step; 7. Answer the Questions: Students answer five to nine multiple choice and open-ended questions about the story. For most of the levels, the questions follow a specific pattern, allowing for the teacher to detect when a student has trouble with particular types of questions. The SE corrects the multiple-choice questions. The teacher corrects the open-ended questions during the Pass step (step 9); 8. Retell the Story: In the sequenced levels, students retell or write what they learned from the story. Teachers can specify how much time is allowed for the retell step. If time is limited or students have inadequate keyboarding skills, teachers may choose to have students retell the story orally or skip this step; 9. Pass Timing: Students read the story aloud to the teacher in order to demonstrate that they can read the story at the goal rate. To pass a story, students must reach their goal, make no more than three errors, read with good expression, and answer the questions correctly. The teacher and student view the results together. If the student passes, a graph shows their pass timing score as a red bar above their cold timing score (the blue bar). If they do not pass, the teacher can assign some remedial work (e.g., further practice) and then test them again; 10. Repeat: Once students pass a story, they repeat these steps with a new story.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
No treatment control (business as usual)

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3 16 15 0.03
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 16 15 0.03
American Indian 0 1 1.83
Asian/Pacific Islander 3 4 0.22
Hispanic 13 12 0.07
White 23 23 0.02
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 33 32 0.03
No Subsidized Lunch 22 22 0.03

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 2 2 0.00
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 53 52 0.00

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 13 12 0.07
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 30 30 0.02
Male 25 24 0.02

Mean Effect Size

0.18

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Half Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Students who qualified for the study, and whose parents gave permission for them to participate, were randomly assigned within their classrooms to the control group (54 students) or the intervention group (55 students).

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Full Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
5
Minimum group size
3
Maximum group size
6

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
8.00
Sessions per week
5.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
30.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The four teachers were recommended by employees of the school districts involved in the study to guide implementation across the six sites. Three out of the four teachers had recently retired from the school districts. These teachers received a stipend for their participation in this study. The fourth teacher was on school staff and used available time in her schedule to implement the intervention. This school received additional levels of the Read Naturally software as compensation for the teacher’s time. All four of the implementation teachers attended a six-hour training session in December 2008. This is the typical initial training provided by Read Naturally consultants when the program is implemented in elementary school settings. The training included lecture and hands-on practice with the software. All the teachers were given the Read Naturally SE Self-Study Course to take home at the end of the training. This allowed for additional practice with the SE materials. Teachers were offered compensation for up to two additional hours to review the self-study course on their own.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Trained observers conducted observations of intervention fidelity every two weeks to assess the integrity with which the intervention was implemented. Researchers used two fidelity checklists that were developed by Read Naturally to evaluate teacher implementation and student implementation. In addition to the information gathered by the observers, the software documented the time spent on the program and the way students progressed through the program. The integrity checks were carried out for both teacher behaviors and student behaviors. Teacher behaviors included Planning and Set up, Implementation, Monitoring Progress, Teacher Management, and Communication. Student behaviors included a General checklist and Intervention Steps checklist. See tables below for details.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
The tables that follow document the Percent Collected and Percent Endorsed. Percent Collected indicates how much of the data was collected as compared with data that was planned for collection. Percent Endorsed indicates the proportion of observations where the step occurred. Student fidelity was above 90% for all behavior except for “engaged for 30 min and work independently through the steps” (68%) and “students can pass with 3 to 10 repeated reading passages” (60%). Teacher fidelity was typically 100% and consistently above 90% for all except “session length is 30 min.” The actual session length averaged 20 min per day for each of 5 days.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
The initial study included pretest measures of vocabulary and processing speed to evaluate some relevant differences between groups (prior to intervention). There were no pretest differences on those measures. They were not readministered post-test so they are not reported here (as they were not measures of intervention effects).
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA), using pre-test performance as a covariate, was used to test for statistically significant differences (Wilks Criterion, α = .05) on post-test performance for the multivariate combinations of the measures for reading fluency (3), reading accuracy (2), and reading comprehension (2). Planned Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to test for statistically significant differences across the control and experimental conditions for all univariate measures if statistically significant differences of multivariate combination were observed. Hedges’ g was computed as the “covariate adjusted mean difference divided by unadjusted pooled within-group SD” (emphasis original, p. 37) and was used to estimate univariate effect sizes per the recommended procedures within the What Works Clearinghouse Procedures and Standards Handbook V2 (WWC, 2008). Those estimates can be interpreted such that effects that approximate .20 are small, .50 are modest and .80 or greater are strong (Cooper & Hedges, 1994). In addition, CBM-R measures are often administered repeatedly to estimate the rate of growth for individuals and groups of students. The CBM-R was administered at three points in time to facilitate analysis of slope, which were calculated to estimate the rate of weekly gain in units of WRCM (Figure 1). The mean (SD) level of performances within the control and experimental groups were 1.10 (1.00) and 1.53 (1.10) WRCM gain per week, which was a statistically significant difference and a small effect size, F(1, 99) = 4.58, p < .05, Hedges’ g = .18.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC & E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Adolescent Literacy Evidence Protocol

Effectiveness: Read Naturally® was found to have potentially positive effects on general literacy achievement for adolescent readers.

Studies Reviewed: 1 study meets standards out of 4 studies total

Full Report

Beginning Reading Protocol

Effectiveness: Read Naturally® was found to have no discernible effects on fluency and reading comprehension.

Studies Reviewed: 5 studies meet standards out of 11 studies total

Full Report

English Language Learners Protocol

Effectiveness: Read Naturally® was found to have no discernible effects on reading achievement and English language development of elementary school English language learners.

Studies Reviewed: 2 studies meet standards out of 3 studies total

Full Report

Students with Learning Disabilities Protocol

Effectiveness: Read Naturally® was found to have no discernible effects on reading fluency and potentially positive effects on writing for students with learning disabilities.

Studies Reviewed: 2 studies meet standards out of 3 studies total

Full Report

 

Evidence for ESSA

No studies met inclusion requirements.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
6
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Arvans, R. (2010). Improving reading fluency and comprehension in elementary students using Read Naturally. Dissertation Abstracts International, 71(01B), 74-649.

Chenault, B., Thomson, J., Abbott, R. D., & Berninger, V. W. (2006). Effects of prior attention training on child dyslexics’ response to composition instruction. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(1), 243–260.

Denton, C. A., Anthony, J. L., Parker, R., & Hasbrouck, J. E. (2004). Effects of two tutoring programs on the English reading development of Spanish-English bilingual students. The Elementary School Journal, 104(4), 289–305.

Hancock, C. M. (2002). Accelerating reading trajectories: The effects of dynamic research-based instruction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(6), 2139A. (UMI No. 3055690)

Kemp, S. C. (2006). Teaching to Read Naturally: Examination of a fluency training program for third grade students (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Irvine and University of California, Los Angeles, 2006). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(7A), 95-2447.

Mesa, C. L. (2004). Effect of Read Naturally software on reading fluency and comprehension. Unpublished master’s thesis, Piedmont College, Demorest, GA.

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