Burst:Reading
Study: Pappas et al. (2015)

Summary

Burst: Reading (Burst) represents a breakthrough in delivering highly differentiated reading instruction based on formative assessment data. Using cutting-edge mobile technology for assessment administration, students attending schools that implement Burst are first screened with a multi-battery assessment that a) provides cross-skill information about a student’s reading ability and b) identifies students who are below expectations for specific skills at appropriate grade levels. The assessment provides information about skills that contribute to the successful development of reading comprehension and includes all of the measures from Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS: Next) that assess letter name knowledge, phonological awareness, decoding, fluency, and comprehension. The multi-battery assessment includes three additional measures: comprehension, vocabulary, and late decoding inventories. Burst is driven by sophisticated data-analysis algorithms to generate lesson plans and engaging instruction materials for small groups. Incorporating instructional prioritization rules based on grade and time of year, the algorithm prescribes 30 minutes of small-group instruction in up to two skills (Gersten, et al., 2008) to students identified as needing intervention. Teachers, coaches, specialists, and qualified volunteers deliver 10-day “Bursts” of instruction to small groups of students based on the formative assessment results for each student. Instruction is then tailored to the skills defined as the most critical based on students’ grade and time of year.

Target Grades:
K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Target Populations:
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
Where to Obtain:
Amplify Education, Inc.
55 Washington St., Suite 900, Brooklyn NY 11201
(800) 823-1969
www.amplify.com
Initial Cost:
$60.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$60.00 per student per year

The annual student license fee indicated above provides access to our digital intervention program, including customized curriculum modules and reporting. Teachers will be able to use 10-day lesson sequences that are customized for their small groups of intervention students based on the formative assessment results of each student. Additional costs associated with the program include per student licenses to formative assessment (generally $14.90 per student), teacher kits ($215 for K-3; $195 for 4-6) and professional development and implementation support (varies based on nature of the implementation).

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other:
Training Requirements:
Training time varies; may be 8+ hours

For new Burst Instructors, they typically attend 1 to 2 full days of training where they learn: Background/Context 1. How the Burst Algorithm works 2. What areas of literacy content/skills Burst is focusing on and why Practice 1. Instructors are given extensive practice with giving Burst Assessments within the training. Support 1. Exploration of Burst Base, the online repository for Burst materials and support


Training materials have been designed and revised to ensure that educators are prepared to faithfully implement the program. We regularly solicit feedback on our training sessions during field use and adjust our sessions and materials to continuously improve outcomes.

Access to Technical Support:
Various ongoing professional development sessions and coaching are available to practitioners, as well as real-time technical support at no additional cost. Amplify offers initial product and assessment training as well as follow-up Best Practice, the Educational Support Team (EST) and on-going mclasshome.com support.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
30
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
5
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Burst: Reading (Burst) represents a breakthrough in delivering highly differentiated reading instruction based on formative assessment data. Using cutting-edge mobile technology for assessment administration, students attending schools that implement Burst are first screened with a multi-battery assessment that a) provides cross-skill information about a student’s reading ability and b) identifies students who are below expectations for specific skills at appropriate grade levels. The assessment provides information about skills that contribute to the successful development of reading comprehension and includes all of the measures from Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS: Next) that assess letter name knowledge, phonological awareness, decoding, fluency, and comprehension. The multi-battery assessment includes three additional measures: comprehension, vocabulary, and late decoding inventories. Burst is driven by sophisticated data-analysis algorithms to generate lesson plans and engaging instruction materials for small groups. Incorporating instructional prioritization rules based on grade and time of year, the algorithm prescribes 30 minutes of small-group instruction in up to two skills (Gersten, et al., 2008) to students identified as needing intervention. Teachers, coaches, specialists, and qualified volunteers deliver 10-day “Bursts” of instruction to small groups of students based on the formative assessment results for each student. Instruction is then tailored to the skills defined as the most critical based on students’ grade and time of year.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
not selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
not selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
55 Washington St., Suite 900, Brooklyn NY 11201
Phone Number
(800) 823-1969
Website
www.amplify.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$60.00
Unit of cost
student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$60.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

The annual student license fee indicated above provides access to our digital intervention program, including customized curriculum modules and reporting. Teachers will be able to use 10-day lesson sequences that are customized for their small groups of intervention students based on the formative assessment results of each student. Additional costs associated with the program include per student licenses to formative assessment (generally $14.90 per student), teacher kits ($215 for K-3; $195 for 4-6) and professional development and implementation support (varies based on nature of the implementation).

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

not selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   4-6

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
30
Minimum number of sessions per week
5
Minimum number of weeks
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
Burst:Reading requires administration of DIBELS: Next and Burst assessments (vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension) and these assessments are administered using either a handheld device such as an iPad or Chrome tablet or a computer. Results are synced to the mCLASS Home database where all results, group assignments, and reports are generated and stored.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
At-cost

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
Training time varies; may be 8+ hours

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
For new Burst Instructors, they typically attend 1 to 2 full days of training where they learn: Background/Context 1. How the Burst Algorithm works 2. What areas of literacy content/skills Burst is focusing on and why Practice 1. Instructors are given extensive practice with giving Burst Assessments within the training. Support 1. Exploration of Burst Base, the online repository for Burst materials and support

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Training materials have been designed and revised to ensure that educators are prepared to faithfully implement the program. We regularly solicit feedback on our training sessions during field use and adjust our sessions and materials to continuously improve outcomes.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Various ongoing professional development sessions and coaching are available to practitioners, as well as real-time technical support at no additional cost. Amplify offers initial product and assessment training as well as follow-up Best Practice, the Educational Support Team (EST) and on-going mclasshome.com support.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Dubal, M., Harnly, A., Pavlov, M., Richards, K., Yambo, D., & Gushta, M. (2012). Effects of Burst®:Reading Early Literacy Intervention on Student Performance: 2012 Report. Retrieved from www.amplify.com/redirect/pdf/general/BurstEfficacyStudy.pdf‎.

Study Information

Study Citations

Pappas, S., York, A. E., Wang, Y. & Richards, K. Examining the efficacy of the Burst: Reading early literacy intervention. To obtain: Contact spappas@amplify.com

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Research staff were responsible for recruiting districts and/or individual schools for participation in the study. Initial contact was in the form of a brief description of the study sent as a recruitment flyer via e-mail to either district leaders or individual Principals within districts. A meeting either on the phone or in person was then held with districts/schools interested in hearing more about the study and Burst. Research staff also worked with Account Managers to recruit schools using various methods such as recruitment flyers and existing relationships with customer accounts. The final sample includes 57 elementary schools that serve ethnically diverse, lower income student populations. Participating schools represent approximately 12,000 Kindergarten through third-grade students from ten states and include 14 school districts.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
The Burst intervention algorithm determines individual student eligibility based on DIBELS Benchmark Status or risk category (i.e., Red, Yellow, and Green). Students who were identified as At Risk (Red) or Some Risk (Yellow) at the pre-test are considered eligible for Burst intervention. The table below provides the DIBELS Composite Scores corresponding to the 25th percentile and 30th percentile for each grade as determined in a national norming study conducted by Dewey, Kaminski, & Good (2014) as well as the percentage of students in the Treatment and Control groups whose scores fell below each of the percentile thresholds. It is important to note that DIBELS Benchmark Status for each grade was not determined according to norm-referenced methodology; that is, risk was determined through prediction of later success on an outcome measure and not determined according to percentile ranks. Students who are categorized as Red (Well Below Benchmark) likely need intensive support. Their odds of achieving subsequent early literacy goals are approximately 10%-20% and those students are unlikely to achieve subsequent reading benchmarks unless provided with substantial, intensive instructional support. Students who are categorized as Yellow (Below Benchmark) means they likely need strategic support and the odds of achieving subsequent early literacy goals are roughly 40-60% for students with skills in this range. Students with scores in this range typically need strategic, targeted instructional support to ensure that make adequate progress and achieve subsequent reading benchmarks (Good et al., 2013). Therefore, while it is not expected that all students eligible for Burst would fall below the 25th or 30th percentiles, all students eligible for Burst intervention were identified based on risk and need for additional instructional support.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The treatment program is the Burst:Reading literacy intervention.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control condition consists of schools not receiving the Burst:Reading literacy intervention (i.e., business as usual). Schools assigned to the control condition also received access to the DIBELS: Next assessment in grades K-3.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):
N/A

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten 666 654 0.03
Grade 1 621 643 0.00
Grade 2 516 497 0.07
Grade 3 474 560 0.10
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 400 424 0.00
American Indian 22 31 0.00
Asian/Pacific Islander 6 5 0.00
Hispanic 211 356 0.35
White 1280 1006 0.32
Other 358 532 0.27

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 1332 1187 0.20
No Subsidized Lunch 515 597 0.07

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other 254 213 0.14
Not Identified With a Disability 1216 1373 0.12

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 711 460 0.36
Not English Language Learner 639 658 0.00

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 873 898 0.00
Male 1133 1032 0.15

Mean Effect Size

0.12

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Empty Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
As soon as schools in a single geographic area within a district fully agreed to participate, they were randomly assigned to Treatment or Control conditions by researchers at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research (ISR). Random assignment procedures were as follows: (1) ISR staff received relevant school level demographic and prior achievement data for the group of schools to be randomly assigned. The actual data used in matching varied depending on jurisdiction, but typically included multiple prior years of data on school achievement in reading, mathematics, and writing (if available), data on school size, and data on percentage White and Free Lunch students at a school. (2) With these data in hand, ISR researchers used the nbpMatching package in the R statistical environment to produce matches using the covariates at hand (Cole, Bo, & Greevy, 2015; R Core Team, 2013). (3) Once matched pairs were formed, schools were randomly assigned to Treatment or Control conditions. (4) After schools were randomly assigned, they were notified of their condition. Using these procedures, 29 schools were randomly assigned to the Treatment group and 28 schools were assigned to the Control group. Given the odd number of schools participating in the study, one Treatment group school was matched to two Control schools. Schools assigned to the Treatment group implement Burst with Tier 2 students considered to be struggling based on DIBELS: Next composite scores and therefore eligible to receive additional support.

What was the unit of assignment?
Schools
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
5
Minimum group size
1
Maximum group size
8

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
2.00
Sessions per week
25.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
30.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Prior to implementing Burst, school personnel participated in a standardized training series that included a one-day on-site session hosted by Professional Development staff to prepare teachers or interventionists. This training followed a common “see one, do one” model in the class with students, so teachers could quickly learn, through context, how the Burst instruction should be delivered. Teachers implemented Burst instruction from August through May, or for the duration of their academic school year. Treatment schools also received one to two on-site support site visits by a member of the Educational Support Team. The support site visit served as an opportunity to observe Burst implementation and provide teachers with immediate constructive feedback.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Members of the Amplify Educational Support Team (EST) conducted Burst Fidelity site visits to treatment schools during the 2014-2015 school year. The goal during each site visit was to observe one (or more) Burst sessions for each grade level. Although not always possible due to scheduling conflicts, efforts were made to observe different Teachers/Interventionist implementing Burst during each site visit. Fidelity data were collected via the Burst fidelity checklist, which was developed and piloted specifically for this study. The fidelity checklist includes 21 items that capture key components of Burst implementation rated on a three point likert scale (see Table 1 in the cited report for further detail). EST members underwent a day-long training on using the checklist and demonstrated at least 85% inter-rater agreement prior to collecting data in the field. There were two methods for collecting data: either the Observer could complete the checklist in real time during or immediately following an observation or the Observer could use a structured notes guide during the observation and translate notes into ratings on the checklist immediately following the Burst observation.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
The below table summarizes the ratings on six dimensions of program delivery. The observation covered 16 schools by 3 observers for K-3. 35 responses in total. The average number of students in Burst groups was 4.33 when observed. The ratings used a three-point scale (0-“None or almost none/poor”/1-“Some or fair”/2-“All or almost all/good”). The average ratings on all six dimensions generally ranged from about 1.43 to 1.91 with a mean of 1.76 (71.50% to 95.50% with a mean of 88.12% —well above the 75%).

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
No, the Burst fidelity checklist is specific to the Burst:Reading early literacy intervention and therefore not applicable to control schools.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
selected English language learners
selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
Student-level post-test performance results on each of the post-test measures are analyzed using one-way ANCOVA (Analysis of covariance) to compare the effect of intervention program vs. control groups. The pre-test of DIBELS composite score is used as covariate in order to obtain the adjusted post-test means. All the students in treatment and control schools identified as at-risk (below benchmark) by DIBELS composite score at the pre-test (i.e., eligible for the intervention) are included in the analyses.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

Program Outcomes: One study evaluated Burst: Reading with students in grades in K-3 in 57 schools across multiple states. Positive effects compared to the control group were found on DIBELS Next and STAR Early Literacy measures (effect size = +0.10). Results were not significant at the level of randomization (school) but were significant at the student level, qualifying Burst for the ESSA “Promising” category.

Number of Studies: 1

Average Effect Size: 0.10

Full Report
How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.