MATH 180
Study: HMH (2014)

Summary

MATH 180 is an intervention mathematics program that rebuilds the foundational skills that struggling students need to prepare for algebra readiness. MATH 180 is a blended learning program, consisting of rotations between teacher led instruction and student paced software.

Target Grades:
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Computation
  • Concepts and/or word problems
  • Whole number arithmetic
  • Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
  • Fractions, decimals (rational number)
Where to Obtain:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
125 High Street Boston, MA 02110
877021207562
www.hmhco.com/products/math-180
Initial Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

Cost varies based on purchase. MATH 180 is sold as a program combining consumable student materials, perpetual licenses to the responsive student software, and teacher materials (digital and print). The teacher materials include licenses to SAM Central where they will find downloadable resources and interactive whiteboard tools, and data and analytics tools. As well as printed Teacher Guides, annotated mSpace books, Resources for Differentiated Instruction, and the Getting Started and Professional Learning guides. A Classroom Materials Box is included with Course I. Most purchases of MATH 180 include two in-person Getting Started professional learning days. Additional coaching days can be purchased.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
Training Requirements:
2-3 days of training

The instructor training includes two in-person days of professional learning covering the content, approach, materials, and data/reporting. Ongoing training materials are embedded within the program.


The training materials were built by Math Solutions and have been in use and refined over the past several years.

Access to Technical Support:
Teachers can receive additional coaching, courses and have access to professional videos within the program itself to refresh or refine their use of the instructional model and program components including the instructional software and high leverage teaching practices.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
53
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
5
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

MATH 180 is an intervention mathematics program that rebuilds the foundational skills that struggling students need to prepare for algebra readiness. MATH 180 is a blended learning program, consisting of rotations between teacher led instruction and student paced software.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
not selected Second grade
not selected Third grade
not selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
not selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

selected Computation
selected Concepts and/or word problems
selected Whole number arithmetic
selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
125 High Street Boston, MA 02110
Phone Number
877021207562
Website
www.hmhco.com/products/math-180

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
Unit of cost

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Cost varies based on purchase. MATH 180 is sold as a program combining consumable student materials, perpetual licenses to the responsive student software, and teacher materials (digital and print). The teacher materials include licenses to SAM Central where they will find downloadable resources and interactive whiteboard tools, and data and analytics tools. As well as printed Teacher Guides, annotated mSpace books, Resources for Differentiated Instruction, and the Getting Started and Professional Learning guides. A Classroom Materials Box is included with Course I. Most purchases of MATH 180 include two in-person Getting Started professional learning days. Additional coaching days can be purchased.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

not selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   12

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
53
Minimum number of sessions per week
5
Minimum number of weeks
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
Students rotate between teacher-led small group instruction and personalized software. Students will spend 20-25 minutes in each rotation every day.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
At-cost

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
2-3 days of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
The instructor training includes two in-person days of professional learning covering the content, approach, materials, and data/reporting. Ongoing training materials are embedded within the program.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
not selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
Yes   

If yes, please describe: 

Intervention/Generalist for Course I stronger mathematics Course II

Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
The training materials were built by Math Solutions and have been in use and refined over the past several years.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Teachers can receive additional coaching, courses and have access to professional videos within the program itself to refresh or refine their use of the instructional model and program components including the instructional software and high leverage teaching practices.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

HMH (2014). Early Outcome Effects of a Blended Learning Model for Math Intervention Instruction With Special Population Students, HMH Research Update, New York, NY

 

HMH (2014). MATH 180 Students Report Greater Growth Than Comparison Students on SMI and NWEA-MAP, HMH Research Update, New York, NY

 

HMH (2015). Early Effects of MATH 180 on Academic Achievement, HMH Research Update, New York, NY

Study Information

Study Citations

HMH, (2014). Early Outcome Effects of a Blended Learning Model for Math Intervention Instruction With Special Population Students. New York, NY: HMH Research Update.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Students were selected from four distinctive geographic districts. There were 10 schools using the MATH 180 program and a matched set of 10 additional schools that served as comparisons. Student grade level ranged from 6th through 8th. All students in the study were identified by their district/school as being at risk in the area of mathematics based on factors including previous year performance on state assessments, grades NWEA MAP and the Math Inventory. As a result these students were selected in both the MATH 180 and comparison schools for additional intervention math support.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
All students in the study were identified by their district/school as being at risk in the area of mathematics based on factors including not passing their state assessment or previous math course, NWEA MAP and the Math Inventory. Students were on average below the 25th percentile at the start of the study. Students in the study were in the 6th through 8th grade. The 25th percentile for the 6th grade is 645Q, 7th and 8th grade are even higher at 665Q and 730Q respectively.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
MATH 180 Course I

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Business as usual locally derived intervention. Consisted of ad hoc use of programs such as Math Navigator, Math lab, Triumphs, 1XL and teacher developed materials.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6 227 154 0.12
Grade 7 225 116 0.16
Grade 8 123 79 0.07
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 173 109 0.03
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander 26 14 0.14
Hispanic 273 170 0.02
White 85 51 0.00
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 457 283 0.08
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 83 61 0.14
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 176 102 0.06
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 283 174 0.02
Male 292 177 0.02

Mean Effect Size

0.07

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Baseline equivalence was met for achievement outcome measures

Design Empty Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Systematic
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
This evaluation utilized a quasi-experimental design to estimate the impact of the MATH 180 program on math achievement in Grades 6-8. The MATH 180 program was implemented during the 2013-2014 school year in four districts across four states in the 2014-2015 school year. A total of 10 schools from these districts implemented MATH 180 in their schools for all eligible students. Eligible comparison school students were identified or matched within district on the same criteria used to identify students in the MATH 180 schools. To the extent possible, schools were also matched on the percentage of English Language Learners (ELL), students with disabilities, and students eligible for Free or Reduced Lunch (FRL) program to ensure that groups were comparable on these demographic variables.

What was the unit of assignment?
Other
If other, please specify:
Schools and teachers were randomly assigned

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
16
Minimum group size
8
Maximum group size
20

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
36.00
Sessions per week
5.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
53.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Math 180 teachers received 3 days of training on the program and periodic coaching to reinforce the quality of the program’s implementation. The background of the teachers is summarized below: Gender: Female: MATH 180 Schools Percent= 74%; Comparison Schools Percent= 20% Male: MATH 180 Schools Percent= 26%; Comparison Schools Percent= 80% Employment Status: Classroom Teacher: MATH 180 Schools Percent= 96%; Comparison Schools Percent= 100% Special Ed Teacher: MATH 180 Schools Percent= 4%; Comparison Schools= 0% Teaching Experience: Total years of experience: MATH 180 Schools M= 8.88, SD=10.04; Comparison Schools M=6.20, SD=5.54 Years in this district: MATH 180 Schools M=6.33, SD=6.83; Comparison Schools M=2.40, SD=2.61 Years at current school: MATH 180 Schools M=3.20, SD=3.16; Comparison Schools M=1.40, SD=0.55 Education (Highest Degree): Bachelors: MATH 180 Schools Percent=50%; Comparison Schools Percent= 20% Masters: MATH 180 Schools Percent= 50%; Comparison Schools Percent= 80% Certifications: Standard or Professional: MATH 180 Percent= 74%; Comparison Schools Percent= 20% Initial or Provisional: MATH 180 Percent= 26%; Comparison Schools Percent= 80% Grade(s) Teaching Core Math: 6: MATH 180 Percent= 37%; Comparison Schools Percent= 60% 7: MATH 180 Percent= 44%; Comparison Schools Percent= 60% 8: MATH 180 Percent= 26%; Comparison Schools Percent= 20% Grade(s) Teaching Math Intervention This Year: 6: MATH 180 Percent= 41%; Comparison Schools Percent= 80% 7: MATH 180 Percent= 41%; Comparison Schools Percent= 80% 8: MATH 180 Percent= 22%; Comparison Schools Percent= 40% Grade(s) Teaching Math Intervention Last Year: 6: MATH 180 Percent= 22%; Comparison Schools Percent= 0% 7: MATH 180 Percent= 19%; Comparison Schools Percent= 0% 8: MATH 180 Percent= 15%; Comparison Schools Percent= 0%

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Levels of program implementation fidelity were tracked in multiple ways. The research team utilized three methods for triangulating the level of program implementation; 1) student software activity (which accounted for use of software and teacher progress via mSkills assessments), 2) classroom observations and 3) a teacher survey Program fidelity was monitored through an examination of the student’s software data which captures their number of sessions, time spent, activity and performance in each of the program’s zones. In addition, mSkills assessments which occur at the end of each teacher led instructional block were captured through the software. This data yielded how many instructional blocks the teacher completed and how each student performed on the assessment. In addition, teacher surveys, interviews with math coaches and periodic classroom observations were conducted. Each school also received 6-8 visits by Math Solutions coaches throughout the study year. These coaches provided regular guidance to teachers and administrators on implementing the program with fidelity.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
As reported in the research update “Early Outcome Effects of a Blended Learning Model for Math Intervention Instruction With Special Population Students” average progress through the blocks for SPED, EL and FRL was 3.43, 4.34, and 3.88 respectively. These are within the normal and expected ranges for MATH 180. Teacher facilitated instruction progressed to block 5 which was also within the normal and expected range of progress for the program. Teachers were also observed at three separate times throughout the study year although there was no second observer so intercoder agreement was not applicable.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
Yes, the surveys, interviews and observations.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Dash
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
See attached study pages 3 - 6

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

None of the studies considered met Evidence for ESSA's inclusion requirements.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
2
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2014b) MATH 180 Students Report Greater Growth Than Comparison Students on SMI and NWEA-MAP, HMH Research Update, New York, NY

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2015) Early Effects of MATH 180 on Academic Achievement, HMH Research Update, New York, NY

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.