MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach
Study: Crews (2004)

Summary

My Reading Coach is a technology-based program that uses an interactive video teacher. 61 computer-based lessons are delivered directly to the student via an embedded Speech Pathologist and special needs teacher. Supplemental teacher-directed activities and support materials accompany the program. Students alternate between virtual on-line instruction and a series of up to 9 activities that must be mastered before moving on to more advanced lessons. The order of the online lessons reflects a model of speech acquisition: sounds are presented based on ease of producing and blending sounds together. MRC™ instruction begins with sound production, and sound/symbol association using written letters and emphasizing auditory and visual discrimination skills. Once the letter and its sound are introduced, the student begins a series of activities (e.g., drag and drop letters to build words, visual and auditory recognition of words/images, visual and auditory discrimination among multiple words/images). A 10,000-item feedback table pinpoints each student’s specific error allowing each to student receive unique targeted, specific feedback on his error to maximize learning. Comprehension is taught as early as lesson 30 with decodable passages from graded from K – 10.5. There are 24 grammar lessons that are introduced as early as lesson 8. These lessons help students progress from reading words, to sentences, to paragraphs and finally at lesson 30 to comprehension with graded stories. The computer program groups students with similar skills so that teachers can work with students in small groups or on a one-on¬-one basis using offline comprehension exercises, called Expert Sheets. Each time students master a set of four online lessons, reading one of the Expert Sheets is recommended. In addition to reading for accuracy, these sheets emphasize: inflection, proper pausing, to enable students to read with prosody. Prosody is also directly taught in the MRC program. Additional offline supplemental lessons and remediation activities are provided so that teachers can work directly with students having difficulty mastering an online lesson. (Appendix A : Program Description)

Target Grades:
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with disabilities only
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Spelling
  • Spelling
  • Sentence construction
  • Other: Grammar
Where to Obtain:
MindPlay®, Division of Methods and Solutions, Inc
440 S. William Blvd. Suite 206 Tucson, AZ 85711
520-888-1800
www.mindplay.com
Initial Cost:
$299.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

Pricing: • Implementations in most schools are by concurrent connection (the number of students who can use the program at the same time), not by the total number of students entered in to the program. • There are home-user product designed for families. This is limited to one specific student for one year. That is the only version available direct from MindPlay itself. • Technical support is free within the active lifecycle of a product. • Cost varies on implementation type. MindPlay develops the software, sales and independent representatives handle pricing. Included in the purchases: Support Materials: Consist of complete program software, teacher guide. The teacher guides offer a comprehensive description of the lessons and activities, and report details. In addition : MRC™ provides a colorful poster of key lessons, teacher manual with over 300 blackline masters for Phonics, Grammar and Comprehension - “Read-Like-You-Talk®” supplemental lessons. Blacklines are also printable directly from the program

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other:
Training Requirements:
4-8 hours of training

The local vendor provides training from a certified MindPlay trainer. MindPlay has a minimum standard required training expectation to include: Initial Implementation for My Reading Coach (MRC™) is 4 hours. Initial Training sessions are designed to prepare the site coordinator and targeted teachers with the ability to successfully implement these MindPlay products into their school. The goal is to provide the site coordinator and targeted teachers with the skills to effectively implement and integrate the technology programs into the school’s existing curriculum. This includes using the management and reporting features of the programs. The training includes hands-on interaction with the software programs, strategies for using technology in the school effectively, report and data tracking, goal setting and individual school needs. Follow-Up Training is available per individual site as requested and can include: o Visitation of classes/students/teachers utilizing the CAI programs FLRT™, MRC™ o Observation of teacher/student utilizing supplemental support lessons o Follow-up training with site coordinator on using U-ARC Management features. o Reports and data analysis for each program o Meet with Site Coordinator and/or principal to look at data generated from benchmark assessments. o Create a School Data Snapshot that utilize data from benchmark and/or school multiple measures to establish and monitor goals. o Provide a school wide teacher and/or parent presentation on Programs Overview and answer questions about program goals, usage, etc. o Discussions o Teacher Options/Management System o Questions/Concerns


Training presentations and materials have been compiled into the current Professional Teaching Guide and Training Syllabus. Because staff training for My Reading Coach is mandatory, the materials have been used with thousands of teacher and students. Their feedback is the bases for revisions, which are incorporated into the manual and the program. A Director of Education Services was hired in 2009 to assist in monitoring the effectiveness and consistency of training provided.

Access to Technical Support:
Educators may obtain professional and technical support through several methods, all of which are free. An in-house technical support staff is available by calling 800-221-7911. The team members have been directly involved in the development, testing, and implementation of all products so they are aware of the instructional methodology as well as technical aspects of the program. An e-mail address is dedicated to technical support, and the Web site offers downloadable updates, answers to frequently asked questions, and a support knowledge base. Independent software dealers provide local, in-person support. All trainers and support staff must be certified by MindPlay, Inc, are trained by company personnel, and must pass oral and written examinations.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
30
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
4
Minimum Number of Weeks:
10
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection
  • Other technology: Appendix B: MRC™ Technical Requirements My Reading Coach WAN Edition System Requirements Server (Windows) Hardware Requirements CPU Intel Pentium 4 (or equivalent) or better CPU, at least one processor for every 100 simultaneous connections RAM 512 MB RAM baseline, plus an additional 128 MB RAM for every 20 simultaneous connections (minimum 1.5 gigabytes of RAM) Disk Space 1 Gigabyte of free hard drive space DVD drive Recommended: a RAID disk array, tape backup, or other form of disaster recovery for the server’s hard drive containing the student data. Requirements listed are for a server dedicated to My Reading Coach. A non-dedicated server may require more RAM and/or processing power, depending on what else is being used and the server load. Network requirements • TCP/IP network • The server must have a static IP address • The server must be reachable (via TCP/IP) from all the workstations that will run My Reading Coach. • The TCP/IP port used by the database manager must not be blocked by any firewalls over the wide area network (the connections between the schools/sites and the district/organization). MySQL uses TCP port 3306 by default. Microsoft SQL Server uses TCP ports 1433 and 445 by default. • A read-only network share visible to all workstations running My Reading Coach. • Recommended: 100-megabit Ethernet on the internal networks. At least a T1 connection between the district/organization and each of the individual schools/sites. Software requirements • A Windows Server OS (Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003) • At least enough Client Access Licenses (CALs) for Windows Server to match the maximum number of My Reading Coach connections. • A database manager. Supported database managers are MySQL Server – supplied with My Reading Coach WAN Edition on the Setup CD with a license for use with My Reading Coach only. Microsoft SQL Server – must be purchased independently and installed prior to the My Reading Coach WAN Server Setup. SQL authentication is required. Windows authentication is not supported. Other requirements • Someone at the district-level needs to be in charge of the program as a whole—adding schools to the database, allocating connections to the schools and retrieving lost/forgotten passwords for the program administrators at the schools. Server (Macintosh) Hardware Requirements CPU Intel Core 2, 1.5GHz or better RAM 1 gigabyte RAM baseline, plus an additional 128 MB RAM for every 20 simultaneous connections (minimum 2 gigabytes of RAM) Disk Space 1 Gigabyte of free hard drive space DVD drive Recommended: a RAID disk array, tape backup, or other form of disaster recovery for the server’s hard drive containing the student data. Requirements listed are for a server dedicated to My Reading Coach. A non-dedicated server may require more RAM and/or processing power, depending on what else is being used and the server load. Network requirements • TCP/IP network • The server must have a static IP address • The server must be reachable (via TCP/IP) from all the workstations that will run My Reading Coach. • The TCP/IP port used by the database manager must not be blocked by any firewalls over the wide area network (the connections between the schools/sites and the district/organization). MySQL uses TCP port 3306 by default. • Recommended: 100-megabit Ethernet on the internal networks. At least a T1 connection between the district/organization and each of the individual schools/sites. Software requirements • Mac OS 10.4 or better • MySQL Server – supplied with My Reading Coach WAN Edition on the Setup CD with a license for use with My Reading Coach only. Other requirements • Someone at the district-level needs to be in charge of the program as a whole—adding schools to the database, allocating connections to the schools and retrieving lost/forgotten passwords for the program administrators at the schools. My Reading Coach WAN Edition System Requirements Workstation (Windows) Hardware Requirements CPU 1Ghz (or better) RAM 512 MB (1GB for Vista) Graphics Card SVGA (16-bit color) HD Free Space (Platinum) 3.5 gigabytes (GB) HD Free Space (Platinum/Spanish) 7 gigabytes (GB) HD Free Space (Gold) 3 gigabytes (GB) Also: DVD drive; Sound card with speakers (headphones recommended) Optional: Printer; Microphone Software requirements • A Windows XP or newer • Platinum: Direct X 9.0c (installed by setup if needed) • Adobe Flash 9 (installed by setup if needed) • Adobe Acrobat Reader 5 or later Workstation (Macintosh) Development of the native Mac version of My Reading Coach has been discontinued. In lieu of the native Mac version, we are recommending installing the Parallels Desktop virtual machine, setting up a Windows virtual machine with either Windows XP or Vista, and installing the Windows version of My Reading Coach in that virtual machine. System requirements for Parallels Desktop are CPU Intel processor only RAM 1GB Operating System OS 10.4.9 HD Space (Parallels/Windows/MRC) 5 gigabytes

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

My Reading Coach is a technology-based program that uses an interactive video teacher. 61 computer-based lessons are delivered directly to the student via an embedded Speech Pathologist and special needs teacher. Supplemental teacher-directed activities and support materials accompany the program. Students alternate between virtual on-line instruction and a series of up to 9 activities that must be mastered before moving on to more advanced lessons. The order of the online lessons reflects a model of speech acquisition: sounds are presented based on ease of producing and blending sounds together. MRC™ instruction begins with sound production, and sound/symbol association using written letters and emphasizing auditory and visual discrimination skills. Once the letter and its sound are introduced, the student begins a series of activities (e.g., drag and drop letters to build words, visual and auditory recognition of words/images, visual and auditory discrimination among multiple words/images). A 10,000-item feedback table pinpoints each student’s specific error allowing each to student receive unique targeted, specific feedback on his error to maximize learning. Comprehension is taught as early as lesson 30 with decodable passages from graded from K – 10.5. There are 24 grammar lessons that are introduced as early as lesson 8. These lessons help students progress from reading words, to sentences, to paragraphs and finally at lesson 30 to comprehension with graded stories. The computer program groups students with similar skills so that teachers can work with students in small groups or on a one-on¬-one basis using offline comprehension exercises, called Expert Sheets. Each time students master a set of four online lessons, reading one of the Expert Sheets is recommended. In addition to reading for accuracy, these sheets emphasize: inflection, proper pausing, to enable students to read with prosody. Prosody is also directly taught in the MRC program. Additional offline supplemental lessons and remediation activities are provided so that teachers can work directly with students having difficulty mastering an online lesson. (Appendix A : Program Description)

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
selected Spelling
selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Grammar

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
440 S. William Blvd. Suite 206 Tucson, AZ 85711
Phone Number
520-888-1800
Website
www.mindplay.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$299.00
Unit of cost
student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Pricing: • Implementations in most schools are by concurrent connection (the number of students who can use the program at the same time), not by the total number of students entered in to the program. • There are home-user product designed for families. This is limited to one specific student for one year. That is the only version available direct from MindPlay itself. • Technical support is free within the active lifecycle of a product. • Cost varies on implementation type. MindPlay develops the software, sales and independent representatives handle pricing. Included in the purchases: Support Materials: Consist of complete program software, teacher guide. The teacher guides offer a comprehensive description of the lessons and activities, and report details. In addition : MRC™ provides a colorful poster of key lessons, teacher manual with over 300 blackline masters for Phonics, Grammar and Comprehension - “Read-Like-You-Talk®” supplemental lessons. Blacklines are also printable directly from the program

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   2-4

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
30
Minimum number of sessions per week
4
Minimum number of weeks
10
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
Appendix B: MRC™ Technical Requirements My Reading Coach WAN Edition System Requirements Server (Windows) Hardware Requirements CPU Intel Pentium 4 (or equivalent) or better CPU, at least one processor for every 100 simultaneous connections RAM 512 MB RAM baseline, plus an additional 128 MB RAM for every 20 simultaneous connections (minimum 1.5 gigabytes of RAM) Disk Space 1 Gigabyte of free hard drive space DVD drive Recommended: a RAID disk array, tape backup, or other form of disaster recovery for the server’s hard drive containing the student data. Requirements listed are for a server dedicated to My Reading Coach. A non-dedicated server may require more RAM and/or processing power, depending on what else is being used and the server load. Network requirements • TCP/IP network • The server must have a static IP address • The server must be reachable (via TCP/IP) from all the workstations that will run My Reading Coach. • The TCP/IP port used by the database manager must not be blocked by any firewalls over the wide area network (the connections between the schools/sites and the district/organization). MySQL uses TCP port 3306 by default. Microsoft SQL Server uses TCP ports 1433 and 445 by default. • A read-only network share visible to all workstations running My Reading Coach. • Recommended: 100-megabit Ethernet on the internal networks. At least a T1 connection between the district/organization and each of the individual schools/sites. Software requirements • A Windows Server OS (Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003) • At least enough Client Access Licenses (CALs) for Windows Server to match the maximum number of My Reading Coach connections. • A database manager. Supported database managers are MySQL Server – supplied with My Reading Coach WAN Edition on the Setup CD with a license for use with My Reading Coach only. Microsoft SQL Server – must be purchased independently and installed prior to the My Reading Coach WAN Server Setup. SQL authentication is required. Windows authentication is not supported. Other requirements • Someone at the district-level needs to be in charge of the program as a whole—adding schools to the database, allocating connections to the schools and retrieving lost/forgotten passwords for the program administrators at the schools. Server (Macintosh) Hardware Requirements CPU Intel Core 2, 1.5GHz or better RAM 1 gigabyte RAM baseline, plus an additional 128 MB RAM for every 20 simultaneous connections (minimum 2 gigabytes of RAM) Disk Space 1 Gigabyte of free hard drive space DVD drive Recommended: a RAID disk array, tape backup, or other form of disaster recovery for the server’s hard drive containing the student data. Requirements listed are for a server dedicated to My Reading Coach. A non-dedicated server may require more RAM and/or processing power, depending on what else is being used and the server load. Network requirements • TCP/IP network • The server must have a static IP address • The server must be reachable (via TCP/IP) from all the workstations that will run My Reading Coach. • The TCP/IP port used by the database manager must not be blocked by any firewalls over the wide area network (the connections between the schools/sites and the district/organization). MySQL uses TCP port 3306 by default. • Recommended: 100-megabit Ethernet on the internal networks. At least a T1 connection between the district/organization and each of the individual schools/sites. Software requirements • Mac OS 10.4 or better • MySQL Server – supplied with My Reading Coach WAN Edition on the Setup CD with a license for use with My Reading Coach only. Other requirements • Someone at the district-level needs to be in charge of the program as a whole—adding schools to the database, allocating connections to the schools and retrieving lost/forgotten passwords for the program administrators at the schools. My Reading Coach WAN Edition System Requirements Workstation (Windows) Hardware Requirements CPU 1Ghz (or better) RAM 512 MB (1GB for Vista) Graphics Card SVGA (16-bit color) HD Free Space (Platinum) 3.5 gigabytes (GB) HD Free Space (Platinum/Spanish) 7 gigabytes (GB) HD Free Space (Gold) 3 gigabytes (GB) Also: DVD drive; Sound card with speakers (headphones recommended) Optional: Printer; Microphone Software requirements • A Windows XP or newer • Platinum: Direct X 9.0c (installed by setup if needed) • Adobe Flash 9 (installed by setup if needed) • Adobe Acrobat Reader 5 or later Workstation (Macintosh) Development of the native Mac version of My Reading Coach has been discontinued. In lieu of the native Mac version, we are recommending installing the Parallels Desktop virtual machine, setting up a Windows virtual machine with either Windows XP or Vista, and installing the Windows version of My Reading Coach in that virtual machine. System requirements for Parallels Desktop are CPU Intel processor only RAM 1GB Operating System OS 10.4.9 HD Space (Parallels/Windows/MRC) 5 gigabytes

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
Free

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
4-8 hours of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
The local vendor provides training from a certified MindPlay trainer. MindPlay has a minimum standard required training expectation to include: Initial Implementation for My Reading Coach (MRC™) is 4 hours. Initial Training sessions are designed to prepare the site coordinator and targeted teachers with the ability to successfully implement these MindPlay products into their school. The goal is to provide the site coordinator and targeted teachers with the skills to effectively implement and integrate the technology programs into the school’s existing curriculum. This includes using the management and reporting features of the programs. The training includes hands-on interaction with the software programs, strategies for using technology in the school effectively, report and data tracking, goal setting and individual school needs. Follow-Up Training is available per individual site as requested and can include: o Visitation of classes/students/teachers utilizing the CAI programs FLRT™, MRC™ o Observation of teacher/student utilizing supplemental support lessons o Follow-up training with site coordinator on using U-ARC Management features. o Reports and data analysis for each program o Meet with Site Coordinator and/or principal to look at data generated from benchmark assessments. o Create a School Data Snapshot that utilize data from benchmark and/or school multiple measures to establish and monitor goals. o Provide a school wide teacher and/or parent presentation on Programs Overview and answer questions about program goals, usage, etc. o Discussions o Teacher Options/Management System o Questions/Concerns

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Training presentations and materials have been compiled into the current Professional Teaching Guide and Training Syllabus. Because staff training for My Reading Coach is mandatory, the materials have been used with thousands of teacher and students. Their feedback is the bases for revisions, which are incorporated into the manual and the program. A Director of Education Services was hired in 2009 to assist in monitoring the effectiveness and consistency of training provided.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Educators may obtain professional and technical support through several methods, all of which are free. An in-house technical support staff is available by calling 800-221-7911. The team members have been directly involved in the development, testing, and implementation of all products so they are aware of the instructional methodology as well as technical aspects of the program. An e-mail address is dedicated to technical support, and the Web site offers downloadable updates, answers to frequently asked questions, and a support knowledge base. Independent software dealers provide local, in-person support. All trainers and support staff must be certified by MindPlay, Inc, are trained by company personnel, and must pass oral and written examinations.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Study Information

Study Citations

Crews, J. M. Principles and Methodology for Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Design. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona,

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Pilot Study: Teacher recommendation was the basis for student selection. Field Study: All students in grades four and five of an elementary school were invited to participate. Only those students who attended school on the pretest day were included. All students were in Title I schools with a high concentration of low-income families, including those in which English was not the primarily language. Specific demographic information was not reported.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Pilot Study: Teachers identified students as being at-risk through classroom assessments. Field Study: Teachers identified students as being at-risk through classroom assessments.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
In the pilot and field studies, the treatment is named Larrabee’s Bridge to Adult Literacy. The program was renamed My Reading Coach.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control group in the field study received the print-based, teacher-directed reading instruction approved by the district.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic
White
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female
Male

Mean Effect Size

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Empty Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Systematic
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
At the request of teachers, students with the lowest reading achievement were assigned to the treatment group. This was recognized in the data analysis.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
36.00
Sessions per week
3.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
50.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Teachers received several hours of training from MindPlay staff in the program.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
The researcher made periodic visits to the sites and was available by phone to answer questions.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
This information was not reported in the study.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Dash
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

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What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
In the pilot study, the mean NCE scores were: pretest 5.92 (8.92), posttest 23.31 (12.36), difference 17.38 (9.17), p <.001. In the field study, a repeated measures analysis was conducted of both groups using the DRP. An oral fluency CBM judged by two raters was used with the treatment students. Note: Student-level data were not reported in the dissertation, so it was impossible to calculate adjusted means.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

None of the studies considered met Evidence for ESSA's inclusion requirements.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.