QuickReads
Study: Vadasy & Sanders (2008)

Summary

Research-based and classroom-validated, QuickReads was specially designed to improve students' fluency, comprehension, and background knowledge. Program curriculum and content design are especially intended for students in grades 2-6 and are developmentally appropriate for students reading on a 1st to 6th grade level. The program can be implemented in just 15 minutes per day; therefore can fit neatly within or outside of the reading block. Consisting of short texts that are designed to be read quickly and meaningfully, QuickReads presents readers with an accessible, considerate and research-based model of text. QuickReads® develops fluency by increasing automaticity. By repeatedly using high-frequency words and words with common phonics/syllabic patterns, students automatically recognize these “high leverage” words and begin to read at a faster rate enabling them to focus on meaning and mastering content-area vocabulary. QuickReads® offers a quick and effective teacher-led instructional routine that develops consistent comprehension strategies within the context of short reading passages. It also supports building background knowledge by clustering multiple passages around high-interest topics students will encounter in science and social studies curricula, allowing the student to explore a subject in depth through a series of short focused readings. The QuickReads program levels offer increasingly complex text, designed to build student capacity to comprehend increasingly complex text. A Placement Guide and on-going progress monitoring are built into the QuickReads program.

Target Grades:
2, 3, 4, 5
Target Populations:
  • Students with disabilities only
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Other: Background Knowledge
Where to Obtain:
Pearson
P.O. Box 2500 Lebanon, IN 46052-3009
800-848-9500
www.pearsonschool.com
Initial Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

QuickReads Print Complete Classroom Program, Levels A* -F – Each Level includes 24 copies each of Books 1, 2, and 3, Teacher’s Resource Manual, 3 Read-Aloud Audio CDs, Professional Development DVD, Placement Guide, and Laminated Instructional Routine Card. . ($660.97) QuickReads Print Intervention Kits, Levels A - F – Each level includes 12 copies each of Books 1, 2, and 3, Teacher’s Resource Manual, 3 Read-Aloud Audio CDs, Professional Development DVD, Placement Guide, and Laminated Instructional Routine Card..($385.97) 6-packs of student books are available for sale separately ($51.97)

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other:
Training Requirements:
Training not required

Free online training modules 3 hours on-site Product Implementation Essentials with up to 30 teachers


Access to Technical Support:
See Instructor Training offerings
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
15
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
3
Minimum Number of Weeks:
28
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
No technology is required.

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Research-based and classroom-validated, QuickReads was specially designed to improve students' fluency, comprehension, and background knowledge. Program curriculum and content design are especially intended for students in grades 2-6 and are developmentally appropriate for students reading on a 1st to 6th grade level. The program can be implemented in just 15 minutes per day; therefore can fit neatly within or outside of the reading block. Consisting of short texts that are designed to be read quickly and meaningfully, QuickReads presents readers with an accessible, considerate and research-based model of text. QuickReads® develops fluency by increasing automaticity. By repeatedly using high-frequency words and words with common phonics/syllabic patterns, students automatically recognize these “high leverage” words and begin to read at a faster rate enabling them to focus on meaning and mastering content-area vocabulary. QuickReads® offers a quick and effective teacher-led instructional routine that develops consistent comprehension strategies within the context of short reading passages. It also supports building background knowledge by clustering multiple passages around high-interest topics students will encounter in science and social studies curricula, allowing the student to explore a subject in depth through a series of short focused readings. The QuickReads program levels offer increasingly complex text, designed to build student capacity to comprehend increasingly complex text. A Placement Guide and on-going progress monitoring are built into the QuickReads program.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
not selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Background Knowledge

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
P.O. Box 2500 Lebanon, IN 46052-3009
Phone Number
800-848-9500
Website
www.pearsonschool.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
Unit of cost

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

QuickReads Print Complete Classroom Program, Levels A* -F – Each Level includes 24 copies each of Books 1, 2, and 3, Teacher’s Resource Manual, 3 Read-Aloud Audio CDs, Professional Development DVD, Placement Guide, and Laminated Instructional Routine Card. . ($660.97) QuickReads Print Intervention Kits, Levels A - F – Each level includes 12 copies each of Books 1, 2, and 3, Teacher’s Resource Manual, 3 Read-Aloud Audio CDs, Professional Development DVD, Placement Guide, and Laminated Instructional Routine Card..($385.97) 6-packs of student books are available for sale separately ($51.97)

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   6

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
15
Minimum number of sessions per week
3
Minimum number of weeks
28
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
No

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
No
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
Training not required; 3 hours of training recommended

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Free online training modules 3 hours on-site Product Implementation Essentials with up to 30 teachers

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

See Instructor Training offerings

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Study Information

Study Citations

Vadasy, P. F. & Sanders, E. A. (2008). Benefits of Repeated Reading Intervention for Low-Achieving Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students. Remedial and Special Education, 29(4) 235-249.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Referral and screening. In the fall of the academic year, 40 fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in 12 public elementary schools in a large northwestern city were asked to refer students who (a) had never been retained, (b) had low rates of reading fluency or comprehension, and (c) would particularly benefit from a fluency-oriented intervention (i.e., teachers were asked to recommend students with adequate word reading skills who would benefit most from fluency instruction and who could be pulled out for instruction). Once active parent consents were obtained, referred students were screened for eligibility. Students were considered eligible for participation if they demonstrated at-risk performance on the average of three gradelevel reading passages from the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) subtest of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS; Good & Kaminski, 2002); fourth-grade at-risk performance was defined as scoring below 93 words correct per minute (WCPM) on fourthgrade passages, and fifth-grade at-risk performance was defined as scoring below 104 WCPM on fifth-grade passages. Of those screened, one fifth grader was recommended for an alternative intervention, as the student was able to read only 11 WCPM (far lower than bottom 10th percentile performance of 61 WCPM for fifth graders; see Hasbrouck & Tindal, 2006). Students eligible for participation were administered the full pretest battery. (p. 237)

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students screened on the average of 3 passages drawn from DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency. Students who performed below grade level norms (“at risk” or “at some risk” according to the DIBELS norms) were considered eligible.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
Quick Reads fluency pull-out for pairs of students was the treatment condition.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Business-as-usual classroom instruction was the control condition. Important: random assignment occurred within schools, not by classrooms.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4 28 37 0.32
Grade 5 26 28 0.08
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 23 24 0.03
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander 2 9 0.95
Hispanic 5 10 0.47
White 15 14 0.04
Other 9 8 0.12

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other 10 17 0.40
Not Identified With a Disability 44 48 0.16

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 13 19 0.28
Not English Language Learner 41 46 0.18

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 33 31 0.07
Male 21 34 0.49

Mean Effect Size

0.28

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
RNG-uniform distribution used: students randomly assigned to dyads within school, and dyads randomly assigned to treatment or control conditions within schools.

What was the unit of assignment?
Other
If other, please specify:
Dyads

Please describe the unit of assignment:
Students were randomly assigned to dyads (pairs) and then dyads randomly assigned to conditions. Treatment effect tested at dyad-level.

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
not selected Students
not selected Classes
selected Other
If other, please specify:
Dyads

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:
Treatment effect tested at dyad-level.

Fidelity of Implementation Full Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
2
Minimum group size
1
Maximum group size
2

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
18.00
Sessions per week
4.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
30.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Twenty tutors were recruited from their school communities. Tutors’ educational levels, general tutoring experience, and experience working with fourth and fifth graders varied. Two tutors were employees of the district and served regularly as instructional assistants (IAs), and 3 were hourly employees. Prior to the study, tutors ranged from 0 to 11 years of tutoring experience and averaged 15 years of education: Two had master’s degrees, 11 had bachelor’s degrees (3 with teaching certificates), 2 had associate’s degrees, and 5 had attended some college. The average educational attainment of tutors in this study matches the paraeducator competency requirements under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Tutor training: Tutors participated in one initial 4-hour training by project staff. Training included an overview of reading fluency development and the repeated reading method. Research staff then modeled the use of Quick Reads materials and vocabulary instruction. The tutors practiced and received feedback before they began work with students. Following initial training, coaches visited tutors weekly to provide coaching and modeling and to collect observation data on tutor instruction and management. Midyear, tutors attended a 3-hour workshop provided by research staff to reinforce tutoring strategies and effective student management. The workshop addressed specific tutor skills for successful Quick Reads lessons and included a demonstration of a Quick Reads lesson with students in study. Tutor coaching: Throughout the 20-week intervention, research staff supported and conducted observations of the tutors. Specific researcher coaches were assigned to a set of tutors, and for each tutor, a minimum of eight observations were conducted (of which there were at least two observations per dyad). Coaches met monthly to discuss tutoring implementation progress.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
To monitor treatment implementation fidelity, data were collected via observation forms, including (a) tutors’ adherence to scripted Quick Reads protocols, (b) tutor behavior in terms of both organization and responsiveness to students’ needs, and (c) student progress in terms of the amount of time spent actively engaged in reading passages. Tutors’ fidelity to scripted protocols was measured using a dichotomous (yes–no) implementation checklist that included two to five criteria for each of the Quick Reads instructional steps (the percentage of observed correct criteria across all steps was calculated per observation). Tutors’ behavior was measured using a 5-point rating scale of 0 (never) to 4 (always) on eight criteria, including “organizational materials,” “tutoring time spent on instruction,” “full tutoring time used,” “smooth transitions,” “corrections match error and skill,” “use of specific praise,” “quick pace,” and “keeps students engaged.” Student progress was measured by recording the amount of time (in seconds) students were actively reading text. Across all three measurements (protocols, behaviors, and student progress), only components actually observed were recorded (i.e., if the beginning of the tutoring session was the only component observed, then tutor behavior and student progress were not recorded).

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
A total of 54 paired observations from five pairs of raters (one researcher-rater was used as a baseline for comparison with the other five) were used to obtain interobserver reliability. Adherence to scripted Quick Reads protocols reliability ranged from r = 0.53 to r = 0.91 and averaged r = 0.76. Reliabilities averaged r = 0.81 for tutor behavior ratings and r = 0.92 for the amount of time students spent on passage reading. Across 254 observations (approximately 13 per tutor), adherence to protocols averaged M = 90% (SD = 11.5%); across 248 observations (approximately 12 per tutor), tutor behaviors averaged M = 3.7 (SD = 0.55), and across 206 observations, each student (within the dyad) spent an average of M = 7.8 minutes per session (SD = 4.42) actively engaged in orally reading Quick Reads text.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
we have excluded the attention and RAN measures as they were only measured at pretest for the purpose of describing the sample (no treatment-control differences at pretest: see p. 243)
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
Multilevel modeling with students at Level 1 and dyads at Level 2; although not stated in the publication, we tested whether within-dyad variance was heterogeneous due to the pseudo-dyad grouping of the control group; no significant heterogeneous Level 1 variance was detected, and no substantive difference in outcomes observed with incorporation of heterogeneous Level 1 variance was found. Hence the simpler multilevel model assuming homogeneous Level 1 variance was reported in the publication.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

Struggling Readers

Program Outcomes: QuickReads has been evaluated in three studies and all three found positive effects on measures such as the GORT and Woodcock (effect size = +0.21). These outcomes qualify QuickReads for the ESSA "Strong" category, and for a "Solid Outcomes" rating (effects of at least +0.20 in two or more studies).

Number of Studies: 3

Average Effect Size: 0.21

Full Report

Whole Class

Program Outcomes: One study evaluated QuickReads-Whole Class. On Gates tests, the average effect size was +0.21, qualifying QuickReads-Whole Class for the ESSA “Strong” category. A comparison of print plus technology and print-only variations found that both were equally effective compared to controls.

Number of Studies: 1

Average Effect Size: 0.21

Full Report

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
2
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Trainin, G., Wilson, K. M., Rankin-Erickson, J., & Hayden, E. H. (2006). Teaching Fluency: An Experimental Study of the QuickReads Programs (2006). Available at www.pearsoned.com(link is external).

Vadasy, P. F., & Sanders, E. A. (2008). Repeated Reading Intervention: Outcomes and Interactions with Readers' Skills and Classroom Instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 272-290.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.