Sound Partners (1-3)
Study: Vadasy et al. (2005)

Summary

Sound Partners (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides individual explicit instruction in early reading skills to students who need it most. The program was specifically developed to reduce the number of students identified with reading disabilities by supplementing reading instruction for: first graders at highest risk of reading failure, second and third graders below grade level in reading, and students just learning the English language. Sound Partners is designed to enable paraeducators or tutors to provide effective instruction in the early reading skills most predictive of reading achievement. In addition, Sound Partners has been used successfully by parents who home-school their children. Targeted to students in grades 1-3, Sound Partners helps struggling readers who are below benchmark in phonemic awareness and phonics. Using initial sound, phoneme segmentation, nonsense word, and letter naming fluencies, tutors help students build fundamental reading skills. In 30-minute, one-on-one sessions, students improve reading skills, apply decoding techniques, and build fluency using the scaffolded Decodable Reader storybooks. With Sound Partners, students receive explicit and systematic instruction in letter-sound relationships, decoding strategies, and carefully coordinated spelling instruction. Students have daily opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in decodable stories that feature the letters and sounds they are learning. Letter-sound relationships are introduced at a reasonable pace, with extensive practice opportunities and cumulative review of previously-taught relationships. Decoding instruction is explicit, with guided practice, scaffolding, and modeling. Tutors are provided with mastery tests to monitor student progress and to identify areas for additional review and practice. Progress reports are also included to help tutors communicate with classroom teachers and parents. Paraprofessional tutors are trained to adjust their pace of instruction and to provide additional review, scaffolding, and modeling, based on each student’s needs. The easy-to-follow lessons are broken into two parts: • Building skills (15-20 minutes): For the first part of a lesson, students are building component reading skills. The focus here is on a combination of phonological awareness activities, segmenting, blending and sounding out, letter-sound correspondences, word parts, and word lists. • Applying skills (10-15 minutes): After the first 15-20 minutes of component reading skills, students and tutors apply those skills to storybook reading. If the student has mastered sound identification, sounding out, and word lists, reading the story will be a rewarding, motivating experience. High utility letter-sound relationships are taught early in the program, permitting students to read words quickly. Visually and aurally similar sounds and letters are introduced separately to ensure time for mastery and prevent confusion. Letter-sound instruction is followed by a phonemic awareness activity.

Target Grades:
1, 2, 3
Target Populations:
  • Students with disabilities only
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Other: Students at risk for reading failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Fluency
  • Spelling
Where to Obtain:
Cambium Learning Sopris
4185 Salazar Way Frederick, CO 80504
800-547-6747
www.cambiumlearninggroup.com
Initial Cost:
$77.16 per tutor
Replacement Cost:
Free

-There are no specific student materials. -Each tutor will need a set of materials. -Initial per tutor cost: $77.16 (this includes supervisor/tutor training materials and all materials a tutor needs to implement with fidelity) -Schools may also choose to purchase an optional decodable readers set ($134.95/set); see below for details. Sound Partners comprises the following components: •Implementation Manual: This is designed for the supervisor who is overseeing the Sound Partners implementation. It includes guidelines for selecting tutors, tutor observation forms, and the tutor training outline. •Tutor Handbook: Includes an overview of the program and guidance for how to implement with fidelity; this book is also used during training •Lesson Book: This includes 108 lessons and accompanying assessments that will be used during implementation •Sound Cards: To be used during implementation OPTIONAL Decodable Readers set is also available. This set includes 53 books: •Bob Books: First! (Level A, Set 1), 12 Books •Bob Books: Fun! (Level A, Set 2), 12 Books •Bob Books: Plus! (Level B, Set 1), 8 Books •Bob Books: Pals! (Level B, Set 2), 8 Books •Bob Books: Wow! (Level C, Set 1), 8 Books •The Class Trip •Shipwreck Saturday •Poppleton Forever •Poppleton and Friends •Mice and Beans

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other: Teacher’s Assistant, Aid, or Tutor
Training Requirements:
1-4 hours of training

The Sound Partners tutor materials are accompanied by an Implementation Manual. This manual is designed to support the site/implementation supervisor in understanding the program and to provide direction for training the tutors. It provides a comprehensive outline of the ½ day tutor training and all materials needed by the supervisor. There are no additional materials needed for this training—the Tutor Handbook serves as the training guide for the tutors.


Paraeducators attended trainings provided by the researchers/authors of Sound Partners. These materials were used to implement the program in a series of studies .Training materials were developed and refined during the following federally funded research studies including: Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2003-2007 Field-Initiated Research “Kindergarten phonics tutoring” Outreach Projects for Children with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2003-2006 “Efficacy in Early Literacy Instruction” Model Demonstration Project for Children with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2001-2005 “Word Partners: One-to-One Tutoring in Advanced Decoding Strategies” Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 1998-2003 Field-Initiated Research “Pre-referral Assessment and Tutoring Intervention” Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 1997-2002 “Sustainability of Promising Innovations”

Access to Technical Support:
Not required, but ongoing teacher support is available. Additionally, on-site supervisor is provided with observation checklists and guidance for ongoing support in the Implementation Manual.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
30
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
4
Minimum Number of Weeks:
25
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
No technology is required.

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Sound Partners (Vadasy et al., 2004) is a phonics-based tutoring program that provides individual explicit instruction in early reading skills to students who need it most. The program was specifically developed to reduce the number of students identified with reading disabilities by supplementing reading instruction for: first graders at highest risk of reading failure, second and third graders below grade level in reading, and students just learning the English language. Sound Partners is designed to enable paraeducators or tutors to provide effective instruction in the early reading skills most predictive of reading achievement. In addition, Sound Partners has been used successfully by parents who home-school their children. Targeted to students in grades 1-3, Sound Partners helps struggling readers who are below benchmark in phonemic awareness and phonics. Using initial sound, phoneme segmentation, nonsense word, and letter naming fluencies, tutors help students build fundamental reading skills. In 30-minute, one-on-one sessions, students improve reading skills, apply decoding techniques, and build fluency using the scaffolded Decodable Reader storybooks. With Sound Partners, students receive explicit and systematic instruction in letter-sound relationships, decoding strategies, and carefully coordinated spelling instruction. Students have daily opportunities to practice accurate and fluent reading in decodable stories that feature the letters and sounds they are learning. Letter-sound relationships are introduced at a reasonable pace, with extensive practice opportunities and cumulative review of previously-taught relationships. Decoding instruction is explicit, with guided practice, scaffolding, and modeling. Tutors are provided with mastery tests to monitor student progress and to identify areas for additional review and practice. Progress reports are also included to help tutors communicate with classroom teachers and parents. Paraprofessional tutors are trained to adjust their pace of instruction and to provide additional review, scaffolding, and modeling, based on each student’s needs. The easy-to-follow lessons are broken into two parts: • Building skills (15-20 minutes): For the first part of a lesson, students are building component reading skills. The focus here is on a combination of phonological awareness activities, segmenting, blending and sounding out, letter-sound correspondences, word parts, and word lists. • Applying skills (10-15 minutes): After the first 15-20 minutes of component reading skills, students and tutors apply those skills to storybook reading. If the student has mastered sound identification, sounding out, and word lists, reading the story will be a rewarding, motivating experience. High utility letter-sound relationships are taught early in the program, permitting students to read words quickly. Visually and aurally similar sounds and letters are introduced separately to ensure time for mastery and prevent confusion. Letter-sound instruction is followed by a phonemic awareness activity.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
not selected Fourth grade
not selected Fifth grade
not selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Students at risk for reading failure

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
4185 Salazar Way Frederick, CO 80504
Phone Number
800-547-6747
Website
www.cambiumlearninggroup.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$77.16
Unit of cost
tutor

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$0.00
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

-There are no specific student materials. -Each tutor will need a set of materials. -Initial per tutor cost: $77.16 (this includes supervisor/tutor training materials and all materials a tutor needs to implement with fidelity) -Schools may also choose to purchase an optional decodable readers set ($134.95/set); see below for details. Sound Partners comprises the following components: •Implementation Manual: This is designed for the supervisor who is overseeing the Sound Partners implementation. It includes guidelines for selecting tutors, tutor observation forms, and the tutor training outline. •Tutor Handbook: Includes an overview of the program and guidance for how to implement with fidelity; this book is also used during training •Lesson Book: This includes 108 lessons and accompanying assessments that will be used during implementation •Sound Cards: To be used during implementation OPTIONAL Decodable Readers set is also available. This set includes 53 books: •Bob Books: First! (Level A, Set 1), 12 Books •Bob Books: Fun! (Level A, Set 2), 12 Books •Bob Books: Plus! (Level B, Set 1), 8 Books •Bob Books: Pals! (Level B, Set 2), 8 Books •Bob Books: Wow! (Level C, Set 1), 8 Books •The Class Trip •Shipwreck Saturday •Poppleton Forever •Poppleton and Friends •Mice and Beans

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
not selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
30
Minimum number of sessions per week
4
Minimum number of weeks
25
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
No

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
not selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
1-4 hours of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
The Sound Partners tutor materials are accompanied by an Implementation Manual. This manual is designed to support the site/implementation supervisor in understanding the program and to provide direction for training the tutors. It provides a comprehensive outline of the ½ day tutor training and all materials needed by the supervisor. There are no additional materials needed for this training—the Tutor Handbook serves as the training guide for the tutors.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
selected Other

If other, please describe:

Teacher’s Assistant, Aid, or Tutor
Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Paraeducators attended trainings provided by the researchers/authors of Sound Partners. These materials were used to implement the program in a series of studies .Training materials were developed and refined during the following federally funded research studies including: Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2003-2007 Field-Initiated Research “Kindergarten phonics tutoring” Outreach Projects for Children with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2003-2006 “Efficacy in Early Literacy Instruction” Model Demonstration Project for Children with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 2001-2005 “Word Partners: One-to-One Tutoring in Advanced Decoding Strategies” Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 1998-2003 Field-Initiated Research “Pre-referral Assessment and Tutoring Intervention” Research in Education of Individuals with Disabilities U.S. Department of Education 1997-2002 “Sustainability of Promising Innovations”

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Not required, but ongoing teacher support is available. Additionally, on-site supervisor is provided with observation checklists and guidance for ongoing support in the Implementation Manual.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Study Information

Study Citations

Vadasy, P. F., Sanders, E. A. & Peyton, J. A. (2005). Relative Effectiveness of Reading Practice or Word-Level Instruction in Supplemental Tutoring: How Text Matters. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4) 364-380.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Participants were recruited from 12 urban, demographically similar elementary schools in a large northwest area district. Six sites were assigned as treatment sites, five sites were assigned to the control/comparison condition, and one site included both control and treatment students. During the first month of first grade 22 teachers referred students they identified to be at risk for reading difficulties for screening. Students had to have parental consent and not be repeating the first grade. (Page 367 of the article).

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students met the screening criteria of scoring at or below a standard score of 90 (25th percentile) on the Reading subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test – Revised (WRAT-R). (page 367 of the article).

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The submitted program is Sound Partners.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control condition included the schools’ regular reading instruction.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 6 2 0.26
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 8 3 0.20
White 13 10 0.47
Other 11 4 0.26

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 3 2 0.21
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 17 7 0.20
Not English Language Learner

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 15 9 0.20
Male 23 10 0.20

Mean Effect Size

0.25

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Half Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Upon confirmation of study eligibility, students at treatment sites were assigned to tutors (and thus to treatments) based on classroom schedules and tutoring availability.

What was the unit of assignment?
Teachers
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Half Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
28.00
Sessions per week
4.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
30.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Nineteen paraprofessional tutors, hired and paid by their respective schools, were randomly assigned to treatments by research staff prior to training; however, four tutors’ treatment assignments were switched prior to training due to conflicts between the training schedule and the tutors’ schedules. There were nine tutors assigned to the Reading Practice treatment and 10 tutors assigned to the Word Study treatment. Within each treatment, more than half of the tutors (6 each) had at least 1 year of Sound Partners tutoring experience and participated in previous research. Experienced tutors received approximately two hours of initial training in treatment instruction and new tutors received approximately four hours of initial training. After training, all tutors were provided with weekly on-site coaching and modeling throughout the year.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Treatment integrity was assessed through (a) student completion of lessons and (b) tutor fidelity to instructional components. On-site tutor observations were conducted weekly by two researchers using a 41-criterion checklist of critical tutor and student behaviors required for full implementation of the 11 lesson components. Activities were rated on a dichotomous scale and the highest percentage possible was 100%. Tutors were also rated on a 16-item checklist on their use of tutoring time and instructional delivery. For all criteria, researchers scored only items they could observe during the on-site visit.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Research staff conducted a total of 437 tutor observations over the course of the year, with a mean of 20 observations per tutor and a mean of 6 observations per student. For each treatment, researchers computed the mean percentage of criteria that the tutors met for lesson components, use of time and instructional delivery, and overall tutoring. The overall mean fidelity percentage for the Reading Practice (RP) treatment group was 95.3% (SD = 5.18%) and for the Word Study (WS) treatment group was 95.1% (SD = 7.23%). In a series of one-way ANOVAs, researchers found no difference between the treatment groups on any criteria (F (1, 19) = 0.006, p = 0.94). Interrater reliability was assessed by examining the results of paired tutor-student observations conducted within a 20-day time frame. The mean overall interrater reliability for 16 sampled tutor-student pairs was 0.98 (SD = 0.06) with an average of 6.0 days (SD = 5.09) between observations.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
not selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
All analyses used standard scores, unless otherwise noted. All posttest effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated by dividing the difference between the regressed adjusted means (adjusted for pretest covariate) by the square root of the mean square error. Researchers calculated intercorrelations among posttest measures between treatment groups and between treatment and control groups (see page 373-374 of the article)

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC & E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Beginning Readers Protocol

Effectiveness: Sound Partners was found to have positive effects on alphabetics, fluency, and comprehension and no discernible effects on general reading achievement on beginning readers.

Studies Reviewed: 7 studies meet standards out of 11 studies total

Full Report

Evidence for ESSA

English Learners

Program Outcomes: Two studies evaluated Sound Partners with English learners. One involved kindergartners and one first graders. Effect sizes were significantly positive compared to controls at both grade levels. The effect size across Woodcock and CTOPP measures was +0.60 for kindergartners, +0.15 for first graders. Follow-up studies found that these outcomes were still seen two years later, on Word Reading and Comprehension. The positive outcomes qualify Sound Partners for the ESSA “Strong” category, and for the “Solid Outcomes” rating (effect size of at least +0.20 over at least two studies).

Number of Studies: 2

Average Effect Size: 0.36

Full Report

Struggling Readers

Program Outcomes: Two studies, one at the kindergarten level and the other at the first grade level, qualified for the review. The average effect size was +0.58 on measures from the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test and CTOPP. These met the criteria for the ESSA “Strong” category, and for “Solid Outcomes” (two studies with effect sizes of at least +0.20). Follow-up studies of the kindergartners and first graders both found positive effects maintained two years later on word reading and comprehension.

Number of Studies: 4

Average Effect Size: 0.58

Full Report

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
4
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Jenkins, J. R., Peyton, J. A., Sanders, E. A., & Vadasy, P. F. (2004). Effects of reading decodable texts in supplemental first-grade tutoring. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8(1), 53–86.

Mooney, P. J. (2003). An investigation of the effects of a comprehensive reading intervention on the beginning reading skills of first graders at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, 2003). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(05A), 85–1599.

Vadasy, P. F., Jenkins, J. R., & Pool, K. (2000). Effects of tutoring in phonological and early reading skills on students at risk for reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33(6), 579–590.

Vadasy, P. F., Jenkins, J. R., Antil, L. R., Wayne, S. K., & O’Connor, R. E. (1997a). The effectiveness of one-to-one tutoring by community tutors for at-risk beginning readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20(1), 126–139.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.