System 44 Next Generation
Study: Beam et al. (2012)

Summary

System 44 Next Generation is the proven foundational reading program designed for the most challenged readers in Grades 3–12+. System 44 Next Generation is proven to help students master the foundational reading skills required for success with the rigorous state standards through explicit instruction in phonics, comprehension, and writing. System 44 integrates principles of cognition and learning with practices for instructional effectiveness for older struggling readers. System 44 uses state-of-the art adaptive Software to deliver a personalized learning progression with explicit, research-based phonics instruction. Explicit, teacher-led instruction in close reading, comprehension, academic vocabulary and writing provides students with the skills needed to succeed with the rigorous state standards, college, and career.

Target Grades:
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Spelling
  • Other: Oral Language Development, Word Analysis (Syllabication & Morphology)
  • Spelling
  • Sentence construction
  • Planning and revising
  • Other: Summary, Informative, Argument Writing
Where to Obtain:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
125 High Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02110-2777
888-918-6158
hmhco.com/system44
Initial Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

System 44 Next Generation Upper Elementary and Secondary is a blended subscription model. As a blended instructional subscription model, System 44 Next Generation includes a teacher subscription, student subscription, classroom materials and implementation best practice services. The System 44 Next Generation student subscription includes the student application, a student book (S44 student book) and our HMH hosting services. The teacher subscription includes access to the System 44 Next Generation Teacher Central Application. The classroom materials consist of paperbacks, audiobooks, ebooks and teacher resources for differentiation of instruction. The System 44 Next Generation purchases is supported with wrap round implementation best practices consisting of getting started for new teachers, in-person and virtual coaching, reporting and data analytics. Cost varies based on purchase and depends upon number of intervention students, classrooms, and intervention teachers

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
Training Requirements:
4-8 hours of training

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt offers comprehensive professional learning and support for participating System 44 teachers and leaders. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt provides a day of upfront, in-person teacher training with the purchase of a complete stage of System 44. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt coaches also provide additional training, as well as in person and/or online coaching. System 44 also includes program-embedded professional learning resources, including a comprehensive suite of resources and tools for assessing students, differentiated instruction with both print and online materials, and classroom video models for key lesson types.


System 44 training materials and teacher implementation guides are reviewed by expert Houghton Mifflin Harcourt consultants and field-tested in dozens of pilot sites to ensure that the content and strategies are practical and best support teachers and students with successful implementation. The consultants who review and field test the materials bring knowledge and expertise from working side-by-side with System 44 teachers and leaders in classrooms and schools across the country. Materials are also updated on a regular basis based on feedback from the field and program enhancements.

Access to Technical Support:
Each System 44 teacher receives Getting Started training and a Teacher Implementation Guide reviewed and field tested by HMH consultants who work with teachers using System 44 across the country. The guide is an interactive resource used during the in-person training to enhance learning and serves as a go-to resources when teachers return to their classrooms. Practitioners may obtain ongoing professional and/or technical support. Additional support available includes coordinator training, leadership training, in classroom coaching, and webinars.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
60
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
5
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

System 44 Next Generation is the proven foundational reading program designed for the most challenged readers in Grades 3–12+. System 44 Next Generation is proven to help students master the foundational reading skills required for success with the rigorous state standards through explicit instruction in phonics, comprehension, and writing. System 44 integrates principles of cognition and learning with practices for instructional effectiveness for older struggling readers. System 44 uses state-of-the art adaptive Software to deliver a personalized learning progression with explicit, research-based phonics instruction. Explicit, teacher-led instruction in close reading, comprehension, academic vocabulary and writing provides students with the skills needed to succeed with the rigorous state standards, college, and career.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
not selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
selected Spelling
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Oral Language Development, Word Analysis (Syllabication & Morphology)

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
selected Spelling
selected Sentence construction
selected Planning and revising
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Summary, Informative, Argument Writing

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
125 High Street, Suite 900, Boston, MA 02110-2777
Phone Number
888-918-6158
Website
hmhco.com/system44

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
Unit of cost

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

System 44 Next Generation Upper Elementary and Secondary is a blended subscription model. As a blended instructional subscription model, System 44 Next Generation includes a teacher subscription, student subscription, classroom materials and implementation best practice services. The System 44 Next Generation student subscription includes the student application, a student book (S44 student book) and our HMH hosting services. The teacher subscription includes access to the System 44 Next Generation Teacher Central Application. The classroom materials consist of paperbacks, audiobooks, ebooks and teacher resources for differentiation of instruction. The System 44 Next Generation purchases is supported with wrap round implementation best practices consisting of getting started for new teachers, in-person and virtual coaching, reporting and data analytics. Cost varies based on purchase and depends upon number of intervention students, classrooms, and intervention teachers

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

not selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

   5-7

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
60
Minimum number of sessions per week
5
Minimum number of weeks
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?
No

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
System 44 is a blended instructional model, where a half of the class is on the computer/tablet during the small-group rotations. Therefore, the number of devices depends on the number of students in the System 44 classroom.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
Free

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
4-8 hours of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt offers comprehensive professional learning and support for participating System 44 teachers and leaders. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt provides a day of upfront, in-person teacher training with the purchase of a complete stage of System 44. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt coaches also provide additional training, as well as in person and/or online coaching. System 44 also includes program-embedded professional learning resources, including a comprehensive suite of resources and tools for assessing students, differentiated instruction with both print and online materials, and classroom video models for key lesson types.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
not selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
not selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
not selected Paraprofessional
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
System 44 training materials and teacher implementation guides are reviewed by expert Houghton Mifflin Harcourt consultants and field-tested in dozens of pilot sites to ensure that the content and strategies are practical and best support teachers and students with successful implementation. The consultants who review and field test the materials bring knowledge and expertise from working side-by-side with System 44 teachers and leaders in classrooms and schools across the country. Materials are also updated on a regular basis based on feedback from the field and program enhancements.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Each System 44 teacher receives Getting Started training and a Teacher Implementation Guide reviewed and field tested by HMH consultants who work with teachers using System 44 across the country. The guide is an interactive resource used during the in-person training to enhance learning and serves as a go-to resources when teachers return to their classrooms. Practitioners may obtain ongoing professional and/or technical support. Additional support available includes coordinator training, leadership training, in classroom coaching, and webinars.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Beam, M. Faddis, B. & Hahn, K. (2012). Evaluation of System 44. Grantee: Saginaw

Public Schools in Saginaw, MI. Portland, OR: RMC Research Corporation.

 

DeSchryver, D. (2013). Improving Outcomes and Reducing Costs: Napa Valley Unified School District.

Washington DC: Whiteboard Advisors.

 

Scholastic Research (2010). Florida School District Research Update. New York, NY:

Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2010). Lawrence Public School District Research Update. New

York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2010). Napa Valley Unified School District Research Update.

New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). 3 Public School Districts English Language Learners

Research Update. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). 3 Public School Districts Students With Disabilities

Research Update. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). Ann Arbor Public Schools Research Update. New

York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). Central Indiana School District Research Update. New

York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). Midland Independent School District Research Update.

New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2011). Raising Reading Achievement for America’s Most Challenged Older Students.

New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2012). Murrieta Valley Unified School District Research

Update. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2013). Teachers Report Benefits of System 44 for Students with

Autism Case Study. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2013). Saginaw Public Schools Research Update. New

York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

Scholastic Research (2013). Autism Case Study. New

York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

 

PUBLICATIONS NOT PREVIOUSLY LISTED

 

Beam, M., Faddis, B.J., & Hahn, K. (2011). Evaluation of System 44 in Murrieta Unified School District, CA (final report, unpublished). Portland, OR: RMC Research Corporation.

 

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Research (2014). Napa Vally Unified School District Research Update. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

 

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Research (2015). System 44 Evidence and Effectiveness for Students with Disabilities and English Learners. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt                             Publishing Company.

 

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Research (2015). System 44 Research Compendium. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

 

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Research (2015). System 44 Research Foundation Paper. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

 

 

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Research (2016). San Antonio Independent School District Research Update: Students with Dyslexia. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt                                       Publishing Company.

 

 

Study Information

Study Citations

Beam, M., Faddis, B. & Hahn, K. (2012). Evaluation of System 44. Portland, OR: RMC Research Corporation.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
The target sample was selected based on performance on the fall 2011 Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) or spring 2011 AIMSweb assessment. The Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) was used to screen students who performed below the 25th percentile on either the MEAP or AIMSweb assessments. Students who scored below 600 Lexiles on the SRI were subsequently administered the Scholastic Phonics Inventory (SPI) to identify students in need of additional phonics instruction. Students who scored in the Beginning or Developing reader categories on the SPI were randomly assigned to the System 44 treatment group or control group.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
The target sample was selected based on performance on the fall 2011 Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) or spring 2011 AIMSweb assessment. The Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) was used to screen students who performed below the 25th percentile on either the MEAP or AIMSweb assessments. Students who scored below 600 Lexiles on the SRI were subsequently administered the Scholastic Phonics Inventory (SPI) to identify students in need of additional phonics instruction. Students who scored in the Beginning or Developing reader categories on the SPI were randomly assigned to the System 44 treatment group or control group.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
System 44

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The counterfactual varied across schools because students in the control group did not receive a uniform alternative to the System 44 intervention. Please see The Counterfactual in the Program Implementation Findings section of the attached report for more detail (p. 11).

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):
N/A

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4 31 28 0.12
Grade 5 54 59 0.03
Grade 6 33 35 0.04
Grade 7 19 17 0.12
Grade 8 18 23 0.11
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 124 124 0.11
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 15 21 0.18
White
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 148 156 0.14
No Subsidized Lunch 7 6 0.14

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 84 81 0.10
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 71 81 0.10

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 6 9 0.26
Not English Language Learner 149 153 0.26

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 61 65 0.03
Male 94 97 0.03

Mean Effect Size

0.12

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

There were no demographic or pretest differences between the treatment and control groups. Please see attachment entitled “Appendix A.docx”.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
A total of 368 students met the eligibility criteria for System 44 and were randomly assigned to the treatment group (n = 187) or the control group (n = 181). A total of 195 students (53% of the students who were randomly assigned) had a designated learning disability. Exhibit 2 summarizes the characteristics of all treatment and control group students in the randomized sample and those students who were included in the analytic sample. The evaluation team conducted equivalence tests on key factors to determine whether differences between the treatment and control groups existed at baseline. Appendix A provides baseline equivalence test results for the analytic sample. Overall, the treatment and control groups in both the randomized and analytic samples were equivalent in terms of sex, eligibility for free or reduced-price meals, English language proficiency, special education status, ethnicity, and baseline MEAP scores.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
not selected Individually
selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
6
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
36.00
Sessions per week
5.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
60.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The teacher survey administered to both the treatment group and control group solicited information about respondents’ teaching experience, education, certifications, and prior experience with Scholastic’s System 44 and READ 180 programs. Most of the System 44 teachers (96%) were female, and 89% of the control group teachers were female. System 44 teachers had more teaching experience than the control group teachers and were more likely to have a degree beyond a Bachelor’s degree. The System 44 teachers were also more likely to have a full teacher certification (Professional Education Certificate). Both groups had a few teachers with experience teaching READ 180 and 1 control group teacher had previous experience teaching System 44. See Exhibit 3 (p. 12) of the attached report for more detail. Professional development for the System 44 teachers included a 1-day training in September, 2011, follow-up training in November, 2011 and monthly coaching visits from Scholastic staff from December 2011 through May 2012. Please see Professional Development in the Program Implementation Findings section of the attached report (p. 12).

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Classroom observations were conducted by evaluators 3 times during the school year—in fall 2011, winter 2012, and spring 2012—in order to collect data on classroom‑level implementation. Implementation fidelity components included (a) classroom setup, (b) minutes of instruction on software and in small groups, (c) inclusion of all program components (e.g., the 44Book, System 44 paperback books, and the Decodable Digest), and (d) instructional management and delivery.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Classroom implementation fidelity included 4 components: classroom setup, minutes of instruction, inclusion of program components, and instructional management and delivery. For (a) classroom setup, in fall 2011, 36% of the 20 classrooms observed received the highest rating; this percentage increased to 67% in the winter and 78% of classrooms in spring 2012. For (b) minutes of instruction, the Scholastic staff intended teachers to use the System 44 model in a 60‑minute class period. Across all 3 observation time points, 72% to 82% of the 20 classrooms provided at least 55 minutes of instruction daily. For (c) inclusion of program components, observations of instructional materials used during teacher‑led small group activities indicated that in the fall, average level of use was 1.8, in the winter average use was 1.7, and in the spring average use was also 1.7. For (d) instructional management and instructional delivery, 6 aspects of instructional management were rated, such as teacher’s ability to maintain a positive learning environment, monitor students, keep students on task, provide smooth transitions between rotations, use flexible student groups, and differentiate support based on student needs. Five aspects of instructional delivery were rated, such as pacing, appropriateness of the delivery for student skill level, teacher preparation, active engagement of students, and overall lesson execution. For instructional management, average score in the fall was 3.1, winter was 2.8, and spring was 2.8. For instructional delivery, average score in the fall was 3.0, winter was 3.4, and spring was 2.7.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
No, the control classrooms were not observed.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
This evaluation used an intent-to-treat statistical model. Because students were clustered within schools, a multilevel model was used to estimate the impact of the intervention on spring 2012 outcome scores while controlling for baseline score and demographic characteristics. In addition, school level was added as a covariate. To assess the impact of System 44 on student outcomes, the evaluation team used hierarchical linear modeling, controlling for baseline score, ethnicity (African American), English language learner status, and special education status at Level 1 and school at Level 2. The 2-level model for estimating the impact of System 44 on change in outcomes follows: Level 1 Model: Yij = β0j + β1j(Trtij) + β2j(Pretestij) + β3j(LDij) + β4j(Ethnicityij) + β5j(ELLij) + β6j(Levelij) + ij Level 2 Model: β0j = 00 + 0j β1j = 10 β2j = 20 β3j = 30 β4j = 40 β5j = 50 β6j = 60 where: ij = the random error term for student i in school j 0j = the random intercept term for school j and: Yij = the posttest score for student i in school j Trtij = the treatment indicator for student i in school j (0 = control, 1 = treatment) Pretestij = the posttest score for student i in school j LDij = the special education indicator for student i in school j (0 = no special education classification, 1 = learning disabled classification) Ethnicity ij = the ethnicity indicator for student i in school j (0 = non-African American, 1 = African American) ELLij = the English language learner indicator for student i in school j (0 = non-English language learner, 1 = English language learner) Levelij = the school level indicator for student i in school j (0 = middle, 1 = elementary) A similar 2-level model was used to assess the impact of System 44 on change in outcomes in the learning disabled sample; the model was the same as that specified above except for the removal of the special education indicator.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
No
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

This program was not reviewed by Evidence for ESSA.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
2
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Scholastic Research (2012). Murrieta Valley Unified School District Research Update. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

Scholastic Research (2013). Saginaw Public Schools Research Update. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.

Disclaimer

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.