Learning Strategies Curriculum: Punctuation Strategies Program
Study: Schumaker, Fisher, & Walsh (2019)

Summary

This interactive multimedia program is an instructional program for students to use individually at their computers. It begins with a brief introduction to the program, which is followed by six punctuation lessons. Each lesson focuses on one punctuation rule. These rules cumulatively represent the key punctuation rules emphasized in state and national English Language Arts standards for eight punctuation marks: the period, question mark, exclamation mark, apostrophe, hyphen, quotation mark, semicolon, and colon. The Punctuation Strategies Program is intended for use in English courses at the middle- and high-school levels. Students work through the program individually at their own pace. Thus, it can be used with individuals or whole classes of students sitting at computers. There are a total of 11 lessons in the program: six punctuation lessons and five review lessons. Each lesson has several segments. Learn It Segment. The first instructional segment within each lesson is called “Learn It.” Within this segment are animated visual displays and auditory explanations of the targeted rule and the associated strategy for applying the rule. Activities include listening to an explanation, watching demonstrations, and mini-practice activities where students have to respond to three items to show that they understand what they have heard and seen. For example, in the lesson on using a punctuation mark at the end of a sentence, they might hear an explanation of how to place a period, see two animated demonstrations of inserting a period correctly, and then respond to three run-on sentences where they need to insert a period in the correct location. Next, they hear an explanation of how to use a question mark, see some demonstrations related to this concept, and then respond to three items where they need to insert a question mark, and so forth. The computerized program provides positive or corrective feedback related to the accuracy of students’ answers. When students provide an incorrect answer, they receive feedback and another chance to respond to the item correctly. When they have responded to an item correctly, they progress to the next item or to the next segment of the program. Throughout the Learn It segments, students are taught cognitive strategies that they can use to help them apply the targeted rule. For example, when they are taught about using question marks, they are taught to look at the beginning of a sentence for a helping verb because questions often start with a helping verb. They are also taught a memory device (a song) for remembering the helping verbs. Likewise, when they are taught the use of apostrophes with possessives, they are taught a little poem to help them remember when to use the apostrophe before or after the final “s.” Thus, each lesson might have several strategies and memory tools associated with it, and the overall program has a poem for remembering all of the rules. Watch It Segment. The second segment of each lesson is called “Watch It.” Here, students watch and listen to several brief video clips of students using the strategy. Several variations of strategy use are demonstrated, as well as instances when the rule should not be applied. Say It Segment. The third segment of each lesson is called “Say It.” It includes verbal practice activities that help the student rehearse the memory devices and strategies associated with the targeted rule. At first, frequent prompts are given. Then these prompts are gradually faded out until the student is naming the information and strategies on his/her own. Upon completing all the activities in the “Say It” section, the student can choose to take a quiz or redo the section. If the student chooses to take the quiz, it can be in written or oral form. The quiz is scored by the teacher. When the student earns a score of 100% correct (required for mastery), the teacher gives the student a passcode to continue to the next segment of the lesson. If the student does not reach mastery, the student is instructed by the teacher to redo the “Say It” section of the lesson. Students can take the quiz as many times as needed to reach mastery. Practice It Segment. The fourth segment of each lesson is called “Practice It.” It contains three levels of practice activities. The first level includes activities where the student works with sentences that have already been written. Here, the student sees a sentence on the computer screen and is asked to insert the correct punctuation mark into each of five sentences. The sentence is programmed so that the punctuation mark can be placed anywhere in the sentence, and the student can choose any punctuation mark. For the second level of practice activities, the student is asked to insert the correct punctuation mark in only the sentences that require it among five sentences, some of which do not require punctuation. Students who wish to have a sentence read aloud to them can click on the “Hear It” button on the screen. In both Levels 1 and 2, specific feedback is given to students by the computer program on both correct and incorrect placement of the punctuation mark. The computer program immediately requires the student to repeat any items that are not correct until they are correct. If the student makes an error among the five sentences in a set, the student is required to respond to another set of five sentences until mastery is reached. When the student reaches mastery on each of these levels (100% correct on two sets of five sentences each at both Levels 1 & 2), the student progresses to the third level of practice activities where he/she constructs five sentences using the type(s) of punctuation being taught. An example prompt for one sentence in Lesson 3 was “Write a complete compound sentence in which the independent clauses are joined with the coordination conjunction ‘yet’. ” Students can choose to type their sentences into the computer program and print them out, or they can print out a worksheet on which to write the sentences using a pencil or pen, or they can dictate the sentences to someone who writes them on paper. The student then takes his/her final product to the teacher for scoring and feedback. Depending on the student’s performance, the teacher either gives the student a passcode for proceeding to the next lesson or instructs the student to repeat the activity by writing a new set of five sentences in response to a new set of five prompts. To progress through the Practice Segment, students are required to complete two Level 1 and two Level 2 practice sets at 100% correct before being allowed to progress to the Level 3 practice sets. (Thus, 2.0 is the lowest number of practice sets that students can complete at Levels 1 and 2.) On Level 3, they are required to complete one practice set at 100% correct. (Thus, 1.0 is the lowest number of practice sets that students can complete at Level 3.) Review Lessons. With regard to the Review Lessons, they have the same segments as the Punctuation Lessons (i.e., Learn It, Watch It, Say It, and Practice It). Each Punctuation Lesson focuses on the use of only one rule and its associated strategies. In contrast, each Review Lesson focuses on the integrated use of the rules, punctuation marks, and strategies that the student has learned. Thus, in Level 4 practice activities, when students see a sentence on the screen, they must first choose the punctuation mark to use and then choose where to place it in the sentence. In Level 5 practice activities, they must construct sentences containing more than one punctuation mark . Through the spiraling sequence of the lessons and reviews, the program builds so that students cumulatively learn about and practice all the rules and strategies in combination.

Target Grades:
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
  • Other: Students who have difficulty writing complete sentences containing punctuation,
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Sentence construction
  • Other: Specifically, sentence construction involving all the punctuation marks other than commas.
Where to Obtain:
Edge Enterprises, Inc. (publisher); Jean B. Schumaker & Jan B. Sheldon (authors & developers)
Edge Enterprises, Inc., P.O. Box 1304, Lawrence, KS 66044
785-749-1473; FAX: 785-749-0207
www.edgeenterprisesinc.com
Initial Cost:
$30.00 per per computer on which the program is downloaded
Replacement Cost:
$30.00 per per computer on which the program is downloaded per N/A

Once the program is downloaded onto a computer, it can be used by many students individually. The program is distributed on a compact disc ($30) or flash drive ($36). An instructor's guide and all materials needed for the program are included on the disc or drive. A computer that runs interactive programs is required (e.g., Mac OS10.X or Windows 95 or later). It needs a 16-bit color display or higher plus sound capability. It is a stand-alone program which does not require Internet access.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
Training Requirements:
Training not required

We highly recommend that the instructor read the instructor's manual and work through the computerized program (as a student might) from start to finish in order to learn the content of the program, understand the structure of the program, and be able to give the students positive and corrective feedback when they write their sentences.. The instructor can teach him/herself by reading the manual and working through the program him/herself.


The training materials (Powerpoint presentation, activities, and handouts) have been tested by the International Network of certified professional developers associated with Edge Enterprises, Inc. and the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These individuals provided feedback about changes needed.

Access to Technical Support:
Yes, training and support can be obtained through the International Network of Certified Professional Developers associated with Edge Enterprises and with the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
45
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
5
Minimum Number of Weeks:
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

This interactive multimedia program is an instructional program for students to use individually at their computers. It begins with a brief introduction to the program, which is followed by six punctuation lessons. Each lesson focuses on one punctuation rule. These rules cumulatively represent the key punctuation rules emphasized in state and national English Language Arts standards for eight punctuation marks: the period, question mark, exclamation mark, apostrophe, hyphen, quotation mark, semicolon, and colon. The Punctuation Strategies Program is intended for use in English courses at the middle- and high-school levels. Students work through the program individually at their own pace. Thus, it can be used with individuals or whole classes of students sitting at computers. There are a total of 11 lessons in the program: six punctuation lessons and five review lessons. Each lesson has several segments. Learn It Segment. The first instructional segment within each lesson is called “Learn It.” Within this segment are animated visual displays and auditory explanations of the targeted rule and the associated strategy for applying the rule. Activities include listening to an explanation, watching demonstrations, and mini-practice activities where students have to respond to three items to show that they understand what they have heard and seen. For example, in the lesson on using a punctuation mark at the end of a sentence, they might hear an explanation of how to place a period, see two animated demonstrations of inserting a period correctly, and then respond to three run-on sentences where they need to insert a period in the correct location. Next, they hear an explanation of how to use a question mark, see some demonstrations related to this concept, and then respond to three items where they need to insert a question mark, and so forth. The computerized program provides positive or corrective feedback related to the accuracy of students’ answers. When students provide an incorrect answer, they receive feedback and another chance to respond to the item correctly. When they have responded to an item correctly, they progress to the next item or to the next segment of the program. Throughout the Learn It segments, students are taught cognitive strategies that they can use to help them apply the targeted rule. For example, when they are taught about using question marks, they are taught to look at the beginning of a sentence for a helping verb because questions often start with a helping verb. They are also taught a memory device (a song) for remembering the helping verbs. Likewise, when they are taught the use of apostrophes with possessives, they are taught a little poem to help them remember when to use the apostrophe before or after the final “s.” Thus, each lesson might have several strategies and memory tools associated with it, and the overall program has a poem for remembering all of the rules. Watch It Segment. The second segment of each lesson is called “Watch It.” Here, students watch and listen to several brief video clips of students using the strategy. Several variations of strategy use are demonstrated, as well as instances when the rule should not be applied. Say It Segment. The third segment of each lesson is called “Say It.” It includes verbal practice activities that help the student rehearse the memory devices and strategies associated with the targeted rule. At first, frequent prompts are given. Then these prompts are gradually faded out until the student is naming the information and strategies on his/her own. Upon completing all the activities in the “Say It” section, the student can choose to take a quiz or redo the section. If the student chooses to take the quiz, it can be in written or oral form. The quiz is scored by the teacher. When the student earns a score of 100% correct (required for mastery), the teacher gives the student a passcode to continue to the next segment of the lesson. If the student does not reach mastery, the student is instructed by the teacher to redo the “Say It” section of the lesson. Students can take the quiz as many times as needed to reach mastery. Practice It Segment. The fourth segment of each lesson is called “Practice It.” It contains three levels of practice activities. The first level includes activities where the student works with sentences that have already been written. Here, the student sees a sentence on the computer screen and is asked to insert the correct punctuation mark into each of five sentences. The sentence is programmed so that the punctuation mark can be placed anywhere in the sentence, and the student can choose any punctuation mark. For the second level of practice activities, the student is asked to insert the correct punctuation mark in only the sentences that require it among five sentences, some of which do not require punctuation. Students who wish to have a sentence read aloud to them can click on the “Hear It” button on the screen. In both Levels 1 and 2, specific feedback is given to students by the computer program on both correct and incorrect placement of the punctuation mark. The computer program immediately requires the student to repeat any items that are not correct until they are correct. If the student makes an error among the five sentences in a set, the student is required to respond to another set of five sentences until mastery is reached. When the student reaches mastery on each of these levels (100% correct on two sets of five sentences each at both Levels 1 & 2), the student progresses to the third level of practice activities where he/she constructs five sentences using the type(s) of punctuation being taught. An example prompt for one sentence in Lesson 3 was “Write a complete compound sentence in which the independent clauses are joined with the coordination conjunction ‘yet’. ” Students can choose to type their sentences into the computer program and print them out, or they can print out a worksheet on which to write the sentences using a pencil or pen, or they can dictate the sentences to someone who writes them on paper. The student then takes his/her final product to the teacher for scoring and feedback. Depending on the student’s performance, the teacher either gives the student a passcode for proceeding to the next lesson or instructs the student to repeat the activity by writing a new set of five sentences in response to a new set of five prompts. To progress through the Practice Segment, students are required to complete two Level 1 and two Level 2 practice sets at 100% correct before being allowed to progress to the Level 3 practice sets. (Thus, 2.0 is the lowest number of practice sets that students can complete at Levels 1 and 2.) On Level 3, they are required to complete one practice set at 100% correct. (Thus, 1.0 is the lowest number of practice sets that students can complete at Level 3.) Review Lessons. With regard to the Review Lessons, they have the same segments as the Punctuation Lessons (i.e., Learn It, Watch It, Say It, and Practice It). Each Punctuation Lesson focuses on the use of only one rule and its associated strategies. In contrast, each Review Lesson focuses on the integrated use of the rules, punctuation marks, and strategies that the student has learned. Thus, in Level 4 practice activities, when students see a sentence on the screen, they must first choose the punctuation mark to use and then choose where to place it in the sentence. In Level 5 practice activities, they must construct sentences containing more than one punctuation mark . Through the spiraling sequence of the lessons and reviews, the program builds so that students cumulatively learn about and practice all the rules and strategies in combination.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
not selected Second grade
not selected Third grade
not selected Fourth grade
not selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Students who have difficulty writing complete sentences containing punctuation,

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
not selected Comprehension
not selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Specifically, sentence construction involving all the punctuation marks other than commas.

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
Edge Enterprises, Inc., P.O. Box 1304, Lawrence, KS 66044
Phone Number
785-749-1473; FAX: 785-749-0207
Website
www.edgeenterprisesinc.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$30.00
Unit of cost
per computer on which the program is downloaded

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$30.00
Unit of cost
per computer on which the program is downloaded
Duration of license
N/A

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

Once the program is downloaded onto a computer, it can be used by many students individually. The program is distributed on a compact disc ($30) or flash drive ($36). An instructor's guide and all materials needed for the program are included on the disc or drive. A computer that runs interactive programs is required (e.g., Mac OS10.X or Windows 95 or later). It needs a 16-bit color display or higher plus sound capability. It is a stand-alone program which does not require Internet access.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
not selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
45
Minimum number of sessions per week
5
Minimum number of weeks
selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:
Students can work through the program in a total of an average of 11 hours of instructional time. They can exit the program at any time and reenter the program at the same point on the next instructional day. We recommend that students work on the program daily until they complete it, but this is not required.

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
not selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
Once the software program is downloaded onto a computer, it can be used by many students individually. The program is distributed on a compact disc ($30) or flash drive ($36). An instructor's guide and all materials needed for the program are included on the disc or drive. A computer that runs interactive programs is required (e.g., Mac OS10.X or Windows 95 or later). It needs a 16-bit color display or higher plus sound capability. It is a stand-alone program which does not require Internet access.

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
No
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
At-cost

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
No training time is required.

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
We highly recommend that the instructor read the instructor's manual and work through the computerized program (as a student might) from start to finish in order to learn the content of the program, understand the structure of the program, and be able to give the students positive and corrective feedback when they write their sentences.. The instructor can teach him/herself by reading the manual and working through the program him/herself.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
not selected Reading Specialist
not selected Math Specialist
not selected EL Specialist
not selected Interventionist
not selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
not selected Paraprofessional
selected Other

If other, please describe:

Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 

Anyone who is willing to work through the program to learn the punctuation rules, understand the structure of the program, and learn his/her role in monitoring the students' work and providing feedback to the students about their written sentences is appropriate.

Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
The training materials (Powerpoint presentation, activities, and handouts) have been tested by the International Network of certified professional developers associated with Edge Enterprises, Inc. and the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning. These individuals provided feedback about changes needed.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Yes, training and support can be obtained through the International Network of Certified Professional Developers associated with Edge Enterprises and with the University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Schumaker, J. B., Fisher, J. B., & Walsh, L. D. (2019). Effects of computerized instruction on use of punctuation strategies by students with LD. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 34(3), 158-170https://doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12203

Study Information

Study Citations

Schumaker, J. B., Fisher, J. B. & Walsh, L. D. (2019). Effects of Computerized Instruction on the Use of Punctuation Strategies by Students with LD. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 34(3) 158-170.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Fifty-two middle-school students with LD were recruited, and their parents signed written informed consent forms. In addition, 36 high-school students with LD were recruited, and their parents signed written informed consent forms. All of the students were recruited by a researcher who attended their class and explained the study. Interested students took the consent form home for their parents to sign. Students who had signed consent forms and whose parents signed consent forms served in the experimental and control groups. In addition, four English Language Arts general education classes at the ninth-grade level participated as a validation sample (n = 101). The students had been regularly enrolled in these classes. The school administrators allowed these students to take the two forms of one of the tests to show the equivalence of the forms. They did not allow any personal data to be collected on these students. These students' results were also used in a comparison to show how the experimental LD students' punctuation performance compared to the performance of other students in their schools.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
All of the students in the experimental and control groups had been formally classified as having a learning disability using the IQ/discrepancy method as applied according to guidelines in the states of Kansas and Missouri. All of them were receiving special education services for writing deficits as verified by reviewing their IEPs after their parents had signed consent forms.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
100.0%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The Punctuation Strategies Program was implemented with students randomly selected for the experimental condition.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Students randomly assigned to the control condition worked independently with computerized programs focusing on the strategic instruction of reading skills. One of the programs, Wordsmith (Lancaster & Schumaker, in prep.) focuses on teaching the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and roots. The second program, WordSleuth (Lancaster, Harris, & Schumaker, in prep.), focuses on teaching students a strategy for detecting the meaning of words by using the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and roots. WordSleuth is based on the Word Mapping Strategy (Harris, Schumaker, & Deshler, 2008). References Harris, M. L., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2008). The Word Mapping Strategy: Instructor’s manual. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc. Lancaster, P. E., Harris, M. L., & Schumaker, J. B. (in prep.). Wordsleuth: A multimedia program for teaching students to detect the meaning of words. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc. Lancaster, P. E., Schumaker, J. B. (in prep.). Wordsmith: A multimedia program for teaching the meaning of prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises, Inc.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):
N/A

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 21.7 % 23.8 % 0.07
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 0.0 % 4.8 % 2.40
White 65.2 % 59.5 % 0.13
Other 13.0 % 11.9 % 0.06

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 37.0 % 38.1 % 0.03
No Subsidized Lunch 63.0 % 61.9 % 0.03

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 100.0 % 100.0 % 0.00
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner
Not English Language Learner 100.0 % 100.0 % 0.00

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 50.0 % 47.6 % 0.05
Male 50.0 % 52.4 % 0.05

Mean Effect Size

0.28

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

The experimental and control groups were compared with regard to age and standardized test scores using Independent Samples t-tests. The results showed no significant difference between the middle-school experimental and control groups and between the high school experimental and control groups with regard to age, reading scores, and writing scores. Thus the data analyses proceeded without controlling for these variables.

Design Full Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
Within each age group (middle school and high school), students were subgrouped according to gender. Then students in each gender and age group were given a code number, and their numbers were drawn randomly "out of a hat" for the experimental group. The remaining students served in the control group.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:
Student scores on the pretests and posttests were used in the analyses.

Fidelity of Implementation Full Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
Sessions per week
5.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
45.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The instructor was an employee of Edge Enterprises, Inc. She had a Ph.D. in child psychology. She was not a certified teacher. She monitored the students' use of the computers and provided feedback to the students on their final permanent products in which they wrote complete sentences containing punctuation marks. The bulk of the instruction was supplied by the computerized multimedia program, which the students worked on individually.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
The computerized program delivered the instruction. The program was designed such that students could not "break" the program or go forward within the program without completing every activity correctly or entering a pass code when they completed a segment of the program. Pass codes were given to the students by the instructor when the student had performed at mastery. Students raised their hands when they completed a practice activity or major section of the multimedia program. At that time, the instructor recorded the score the student had achieved on a given practice activity (which the computer displayed on the screen) or scored a written practice activity. Then the instructor gave the student a passcode to continue through to the next segment. Thus, the instructor recorded the completion of each segment of the program and all the scores that each student earned on each practice activity. These scores served as fidelity of treatment measures in that they showed how the students performed on the quizzes and practice activities throughout the computerized program. (See the attached tables showing the experimental students' scores on practice activities and quizzes as measures of fidelity. )

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
The fidelity of treatment implementation measures showed that all of the experimental middle-school and high-school students completed 100% of the segments of the multimedia program. Students earned average scores well above 90% on all of the practice activities, earned average scores above 86% on the quizzes, and met the mastery criteria on every lesson. (See the article and attached tables for more details.)

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
The control students were present in the same classrooms as the experimental students. They worked individually on separate computers on different instructional programs. The instructor kept track of each control student's completion of activities within their assigned computerized programs and the scores they achieved on their practice activities. All of the control students completed 100% of their assigned programs.

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
The experimental and control groups were compared with regard to age and standardized test scores using Independent Samples t-tests. The results showed no significant difference between the middle-school experimental and control groups and between the high-school experimental and control groups with regard to age, reading scores, and writing scores. Thus the data analyses proceeded without controlling for these variables. (See the article for the statistics showing no differences between the groups.)
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
There were no missing data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Student and teacher satisfaction results were excluded because they are social validity measures and not outcome measures. (See the article for the results.)
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
The groups’ posttest scores on the Sentence Editing Test and the Sentence Construction Test were compared using ANCOVAs for the following measures: the percentage of punctuation marks inserted correctly, the number of punctuation marks inserted incorrectly, and the percentage of correct complete sentences containing punctuation marks created by the students to match the prompts. The pretest scores served as the covariate in each case. The between-subjects factors were the condition (experimental or control) and the school level (middle school or high school). Independent Samples t-Tests were used to compare the mean posttest scores of the experimental group to the scores of the validation group on the correct and incorrect insertion of punctuation marks. The criterion for significance for all tests was set at .05. The results revealed significant differences for all comparisons, with the experimental student groups (both middle and high school) scoring significantly higher on the correct insertion of punctuation marks, significantly lower on the incorrect insertion of punctuation marks, and significantly higher on the construction of sentences containing punctuation marks than the control groups. No differences were found between the middle-school and high-school experimental students. Additionally, the experimental students earned scores significantly better than their validation peers with regard to the correct and incorrect insertion of punctuation marks. All of the effect sizes were very large. (See the article for the actual statistical numbers and the effect sizes that resulted from each comparison.)

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA*

Program Outcomes: A total of six studies met standards. Five involved targeted forms of SIM and one involved CLC. Outcomes were remarkably consistent, with four of the six effect sizes falling in the range from +0.07 to +0.15, with an average of +0.10. Several of the outcomes were statistically significant, qualifying SIM for the ESSA “Strong” category.

 

Number of Studies: 6

 

Average Effect Size: 0.10

 

Full Report

 

*Evidence for ESSA evaluated the Strategic Instruction Model, which encompasses Learning Strategies Curriculum.

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Data Collection Practices

Most tools and programs evaluated by the NCII are branded products which have been submitted by the companies, organizations, or individuals that disseminate these products. These entities supply the textual information shown above, but not the ratings accompanying the text. NCII administrators and members of our Technical Review Committees have reviewed the content on this page, but NCII cannot guarantee that this information is free from error or reflective of recent changes to the product. Tools and programs have the opportunity to be updated annually or upon request.