Lexia® PowerUp Literacy®
Study: Hurwitz (2020)

Summary

Lexia® PowerUp Literacy® is designed to accelerate literacy gains for struggling and non-proficient readers in grades 6–12. Blending online student-driven instruction with offline teacher-delivered lessons and activities, Lexia PowerUp Literacy simultaneously addresses gaps in fundamental literacy skills while building higher-order thinking skills. Offering a level of personalization, PowerUp addresses the instructional needs of a wide range of students, whether students are several grade levels behind or show some risk of not meeting College- and Career-Ready Standards. With 150 unique placement combinations, each student begins their journey in PowerUp based on their individual strengths and needs. Adaptive instruction differentiates learning as students progress through each of the three strands of PowerUp: Word Study, Grammar, and Comprehension. Embedded progress monitoring, actionable data, and scripted lessons empower teachers to deliver the exact instruction each student needs. PowerUp delivers rigorous content and skills instruction through an engaging, personalized approach that helps students become proficient readers and confident learners. PowerUp can be used by teachers, trained paraprofessionals, and specialists in a variety of onsite and virtual settings. Because PowerUp includes both an online component and prescribed offline resources based on student performance, teachers are empowered to provide students the direct instruction or independent practice they need, creating a true blended learning experience in their classroom.

Target Grades:
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • Students with intellectual disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Alphabet knowledge
  • Phonological awareness
  • Early decoding abilities
  • Other: Please note that PowerUp covers early literacy skills (K-2) utilizing a more mature vocabulary and interface that is appropriate for adolescent learners.
  • Expressive and receptive vocabulary
  • Grammar
  • Syntax
  • Listening comprehension
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Spelling
  • Sentence construction
  • Planning and revising
Where to Obtain:
Lexia Learning
300 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
800-435-3942
www.lexialearning.com
Initial Cost:
$40.00 per Student
Replacement Cost:
Contact vendor for pricing details.

PowerUp Literacy is sold on an annual, per student or school wide license basis, also giving students access to PowerUp. The cost is $40 per student, for less than 250 students, and the price reduces for larger implementations. Included with the purchase are implementation training and professional development with Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers using the program. Additionally, Educator Resources, including guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families are included. Additional professional development and training opportunities are available for purchase and Lexia offers a variety of eLearning, school-level, and district-level partnerships to support all stakeholders to implement PowerUp with fidelity. A computer or tablet with internet access is required for use. Headphones are also recommended, but not required, for use in a classroom setting use.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other: Resource Room Teachers, Elective/Content-Area Teachers (e.g. Social Studies, ELA)
Training Requirements:
1-4 hours for initial training, with additional advanced trainings also available

The format of Lexia’s training includes both asynchronous and synchronous training offerings. Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays. On demand resources also include guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families. Lexia’s Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources are included with purchase to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers implementing PowerUp. These videos provide an overview of PowerUp’s instructional model, instructional resources, and reports, and include best practices for beginning the school year, as well as for student use of the program at home. In-person or live virtual training is also available to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. These Customer Success partnerships are available in a variety of formats and cadences to address educator, school, and district level needs.


Based on extensive knowledge and experience developing literacy programs, teacher manuals, and instructional materials since Lexia’s founding in 1984, the PowerUp’s training manuals were developed from Lexia’s tested approach and continue to evolve to support teachers and students. Training materials and support services were refined over many and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. Ongoing feedback is gathered, including survey data at the end of each training session to refine training content and offerings. Lexia has also conducted research studies documenting that support from a Customer Success package is associated with higher levels of student fidelity, leading to stronger overall gains. Educator manuals and guides are updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, Lexia maintains an Educator Resources hub for customers and a Help Center are continuously updated and expanding to include new topics that have arisen from our field-based team and customers.

Access to Technical Support:
Lexia has developed a variety of Implementation Success Partnership Models to meet the diverse needs of districts and schools as they grow their skills in delivering blended learning reading instruction. The Lexia team of implementation experts will partner with your district and school leadership teams to develop a year-long, personalized implementation plan focused on increasing student reading performance by enhancing leaders’ and teachers’ comfort, skill and ability to use Lexia’s data and targeted resources to uncover and address student skill deficits. Available to all customers: ● Customer Service Support: available via myLexia chat, email or telephone ● Onboarding Tools: admin and teacher welcome email includes links to: Online Professional Learning Guide, Teacher’s Manuals, Learning Now videos, ● Teacher Resources Hub: various supplemental resources: flashcards, writing prompts, comprehension passages, graphic organizers, certificates, lesson checklists, and more ● Learning Now: videos that provide quick, targeted background knowledge/support ● Help Center: searchable database of common questions and how-tos Additional available services: District Level Partnerships: The Lexia District Level Partnership ensures that the capacity of district stakeholders are appropriately supported so that long-term achievement can be sustained over time. The Lexia team focuses on helping the district receive maximum impact from their investment while helping the district build internal capacity. School Level Partnerships: Lexia believes that strong building level leadership teams are essential to creating and sustaining the successful implementation of any initiative. Therefore, onsite and virtual school level support packages include a dedicated Success Manager who facilitates the following virtual conversations: ● Success Planning Meeting to set goals and develop an implementation plan ● Two (2) Success Metrics Data Review Meetings to review goals, analyze data and plan ● End of Year Review to review progress, reflect on successes and opportunities for growth School Level Educator Support: Lexia believes that educators are lifelong learners always seeking to improve their practice. The Implementation Team provides professional learning sessions and tools to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. Standard onsite or virtual professional learning sessions include: ● Launch: Overview of the student program, myLexia’s Data Reports and Key Resources ● Data Coaching: Using Data to Make Educational Decisions ● Instructional Materials: An In-Depth Look at Lexia’s Offline Resources and How to Use Them Technical Support Contact Information for all customers: Online Technical information Help Center: https://help.lexialearning.com/s/technical-info Contact Support; https://help.lexialearning.com/s/contact Call Support: 1-800-507-2772
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
25
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
3
Minimum Number of Weeks:
32
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Lexia® PowerUp Literacy® is designed to accelerate literacy gains for struggling and non-proficient readers in grades 6–12. Blending online student-driven instruction with offline teacher-delivered lessons and activities, Lexia PowerUp Literacy simultaneously addresses gaps in fundamental literacy skills while building higher-order thinking skills. Offering a level of personalization, PowerUp addresses the instructional needs of a wide range of students, whether students are several grade levels behind or show some risk of not meeting College- and Career-Ready Standards. With 150 unique placement combinations, each student begins their journey in PowerUp based on their individual strengths and needs. Adaptive instruction differentiates learning as students progress through each of the three strands of PowerUp: Word Study, Grammar, and Comprehension. Embedded progress monitoring, actionable data, and scripted lessons empower teachers to deliver the exact instruction each student needs. PowerUp delivers rigorous content and skills instruction through an engaging, personalized approach that helps students become proficient readers and confident learners. PowerUp can be used by teachers, trained paraprofessionals, and specialists in a variety of onsite and virtual settings. Because PowerUp includes both an online component and prescribed offline resources based on student performance, teachers are empowered to provide students the direct instruction or independent practice they need, creating a true blended learning experience in their classroom.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
not selected Kindergarten
not selected First grade
not selected Second grade
not selected Third grade
not selected Fourth grade
not selected Fifth grade
selected Sixth grade
selected Seventh grade
selected Eighth grade
selected Ninth grade
selected Tenth grade
selected Eleventh grade
selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
selected Alphabet knowledge
selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
selected Early decoding abilities
selected Other

If other, please describe:
Please note that PowerUp covers early literacy skills (K-2) utilizing a more mature vocabulary and interface that is appropriate for adolescent learners.

Language

selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
selected Grammar
selected Syntax
selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:
Morphology/Structural Analysis

Reading

not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
not selected Vocabulary
not selected Spelling
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
selected Spelling
selected Sentence construction
selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
300 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
Phone Number
800-435-3942
Website
www.lexialearning.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$40.00
Unit of cost
Student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
Unit of cost
Duration of license

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

PowerUp Literacy is sold on an annual, per student or school wide license basis, also giving students access to PowerUp. The cost is $40 per student, for less than 250 students, and the price reduces for larger implementations. Included with the purchase are implementation training and professional development with Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers using the program. Additionally, Educator Resources, including guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families are included. Additional professional development and training opportunities are available for purchase and Lexia offers a variety of eLearning, school-level, and district-level partnerships to support all stakeholders to implement PowerUp with fidelity. A computer or tablet with internet access is required for use. Headphones are also recommended, but not required, for use in a classroom setting use.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
25
Minimum number of sessions per week
3
Minimum number of weeks
32
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?
1

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?
Free

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
1-4 hours for initial training, with additional advanced trainings also available

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
The format of Lexia’s training includes both asynchronous and synchronous training offerings. Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays. On demand resources also include guides and manuals, supplementary materials, and a variety of school-to-home documents to support families. Lexia’s Learning Now videos and a variety of teacher resources are included with purchase to provide continual learning and guidance for teachers implementing PowerUp. These videos provide an overview of PowerUp’s instructional model, instructional resources, and reports, and include best practices for beginning the school year, as well as for student use of the program at home. In-person or live virtual training is also available to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. These Customer Success partnerships are available in a variety of formats and cadences to address educator, school, and district level needs.

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
not selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
selected Other

If other, please describe:

Resource Room Teachers, Elective/Content-Area Teachers (e.g. Social Studies, ELA)
Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Based on extensive knowledge and experience developing literacy programs, teacher manuals, and instructional materials since Lexia’s founding in 1984, the PowerUp’s training manuals were developed from Lexia’s tested approach and continue to evolve to support teachers and students. Training materials and support services were refined over many and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. Ongoing feedback is gathered, including survey data at the end of each training session to refine training content and offerings. Lexia has also conducted research studies documenting that support from a Customer Success package is associated with higher levels of student fidelity, leading to stronger overall gains. Educator manuals and guides are updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, Lexia maintains an Educator Resources hub for customers and a Help Center are continuously updated and expanding to include new topics that have arisen from our field-based team and customers.

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

Lexia has developed a variety of Implementation Success Partnership Models to meet the diverse needs of districts and schools as they grow their skills in delivering blended learning reading instruction. The Lexia team of implementation experts will partner with your district and school leadership teams to develop a year-long, personalized implementation plan focused on increasing student reading performance by enhancing leaders’ and teachers’ comfort, skill and ability to use Lexia’s data and targeted resources to uncover and address student skill deficits. Available to all customers: ● Customer Service Support: available via myLexia chat, email or telephone ● Onboarding Tools: admin and teacher welcome email includes links to: Online Professional Learning Guide, Teacher’s Manuals, Learning Now videos, ● Teacher Resources Hub: various supplemental resources: flashcards, writing prompts, comprehension passages, graphic organizers, certificates, lesson checklists, and more ● Learning Now: videos that provide quick, targeted background knowledge/support ● Help Center: searchable database of common questions and how-tos Additional available services: District Level Partnerships: The Lexia District Level Partnership ensures that the capacity of district stakeholders are appropriately supported so that long-term achievement can be sustained over time. The Lexia team focuses on helping the district receive maximum impact from their investment while helping the district build internal capacity. School Level Partnerships: Lexia believes that strong building level leadership teams are essential to creating and sustaining the successful implementation of any initiative. Therefore, onsite and virtual school level support packages include a dedicated Success Manager who facilitates the following virtual conversations: ● Success Planning Meeting to set goals and develop an implementation plan ● Two (2) Success Metrics Data Review Meetings to review goals, analyze data and plan ● End of Year Review to review progress, reflect on successes and opportunities for growth School Level Educator Support: Lexia believes that educators are lifelong learners always seeking to improve their practice. The Implementation Team provides professional learning sessions and tools to support educators in becoming comfortable and confident in using Lexia’s data and resources to help address student skill gaps and improve reading performance. The Lexia standard and customized professional learning offerings provide flexible and personalized pathways to meet the diverse learning needs of new and experienced adult users. Standard onsite or virtual professional learning sessions include: ● Launch: Overview of the student program, myLexia’s Data Reports and Key Resources ● Data Coaching: Using Data to Make Educational Decisions ● Instructional Materials: An In-Depth Look at Lexia’s Offline Resources and How to Use Them Technical Support Contact Information for all customers: Online Technical information Help Center: https://help.lexialearning.com/s/technical-info Contact Support; https://help.lexialearning.com/s/contact Call Support: 1-800-507-2772

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Hurwitz, L.B. (2020). Supporting Struggling and Non-Proficient Middle School Readers with the Lexia PowerUp Literacy Program. Concord, MA: Lexia Learning Systems. https://www.lexialearning.com/resources/research/supporting-struggling-and-non-proficient-middle-school-readers-lexia%C2%AE-powerup

 

 

Study Information

Study Citations

Hurwitz, L. B. Supporting Struggling and Non-Proficient Middle School Readers with the Lexia® PowerUp Literacy® Program. Lexia Learning Systems. To obtain: https://www.lexialearning.com/resources/research/supporting-struggling-and-non-proficient-middle-school-readers-lexia%C2%AE-powerup

Participants Empty Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
We selected as a partner a mid-sized school district enrolling nearly 5,000 students in a Midwestern US suburb. At the middle school level, approximately 70% of the students in the district were unable to read proficiently at the start of the study.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students were identified as at-risk for academic failure based on the fact that they were placed in supplemental literacy classes for students identified as needing reading support.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
Treatment classes receiving Lexia PowerUp Literacy served as the intervention condition.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
Control classes receiving business-as-usual instruction served as the control condition.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6 25.2 % 31.5 % 0.18
Grade 7 50.5 % 37.0 % 0.32
Grade 8 22.4 % 24.1 % 0.07
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American 44.9 % 50.0 % 0.12
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 2.8 % 1.9 % 0.25
White 46.7 % 33.3 % 0.36
Other 3.7 % 7.4 % 0.36

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch 59.8 % 59.3 % 0.03
No Subsidized Lunch 38.3 % 33.3 % 0.13

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other 21.5 % 18.5 % 0.08
Not Identified With a Disability 76.6 % 74.1 % 0.10

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.00
Not English Language Learner 98.1 % 92.6 % 0.79

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 39.3 % 35.2 % 0.10
Male 58.9 % 57.4 % 0.05

Mean Effect Size

0.20

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Half Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.

What was the unit of assignment?
Classes
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:
Seven supplemental literacy classes were randomly assigned to the PowerUp treatment group, and the remaining three classes were assigned to a business as usual control group that would use their existing supplemental literacy curriculum. Conditions were unbalanced at the request of the district. They historically had difficulty trying to improve students’ reading proficiency and were eager to use PowerUp with as many students as possible. Condition assignment was stratified by school, such that both middle schools contained treatment and control classes.

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
17.00
Sessions per week
2.50
Duration of sessions in minutes
30.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
Eight of the 10 teachers provided personal demographic data for the study. The educators were fairly experienced. All but one (88%) had a Master’s degree, and nearly two-thirds (63%) had been teaching for at least 16 years. To support their implementation of PowerUp, the district participated in an Implementation Success Partnership (ISP), a coaching add-on intended to support successful program use. ISPs include check-ins with school administrators and leaders, and training events for staff that aim to provide a general program overview and deeper dive into interpreting program data and using the program’s offline materials.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
At the end of the school year we obtained records of students’ performance in each online strand (Word Study, Grammar, Comprehension), including start levels, weeks of use, and levels completed. Treatment teachers also completed a survey, reporting on how often they logged in to myLexia (PowerUp’s teacher-facing dashboard) using a scale that ranged from “never” to “more than once per day.” They also noted how frequently they administered Lexia Lessons and Skill Builders (PowerUp's offline materials) using a scale that ranged from “never” to “every day or nearly every day.”

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
On average, treatment students used the online program for 16.60 weeks (SD = 3.33). System data reveal that students used the Word Study strand an average of 12.72 weeks (SD = 4.21), the Grammar strand 12.05 weeks (SD = 4.02), and the Comprehension strand 10.95 weeks (SD = 4.26). Although teachers asked students to focus on a different strand each class, PowerUp gives students the choice of which strand to work on. Students could have chosen strands they found easier and could make more progress. Despite the choice, on average students spent time working on all three strands in approximately 75% of their weeks of use. Thus, we can conclude that students received instruction across all three strands. On average students completed 3.02 Word Study levels (SD = 2.12), 1.21 Grammar levels (SD = 1.06), and 1.98 Comprehension levels (SD = 1.75). This amount of progress may seem modest. However, analyses show that during the same time period, PowerUp users nationally completed on average only 1.33 levels in Word Study, 0.45 in Grammar, and 0.98 in Comprehension (K.Vanacore, personal communication, April 13, 2021). PowerUp users in this study more than doubled the amount of progress students showed nationally. All seven treatment teachers indicated that they checked myLexia at least once per week, with four checking daily. Checking myLexia at least once per week corresponds to recommendations specified in the PowerUp Teacher’s Guide. Use of offline materials was somewhat lower than prescribed. Five of the seven teachers reported delivering Lexia Lessons to students identified as struggling in the online program. One teacher did so more than once a week, two did so once a week, and two did so less than once a week. Only two teachers reported using Skill Builders, but these teachers reported doing so weekly.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?
No

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Dash
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Six EL students were removed from the sample because they were receiving more English support than the rest of the sample and disproportionately in the control group: nControl = 4 and nTreatment = 2. Before analyses were conducted, an additional five students were removed from the dataset because their scores at one or both time points were outliers (more than +/- 3.0 standard deviations away from the full-sample mean).
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
To test the hypothesis which predicted that students using PowerUp would show better reading outcomes than control students, we fitted a multi-level model in HLM 8 (Model 1). This allowed us to account for the nested structure of our dataset (i.e., students nested within classes). The mixed model took the following form: 〖Spring〗_ij= γ_00+ γ_01*〖Treatment〗_j+ γ_10 * 〖Lunch Status〗_ij+γ_20 * 〖Special Ed Status〗_ij+〖γ_30 * 〖Fall〗_ij+γ_40 * 〖White〗_ij+γ_50 * 〖Other Race〗_ij+γ_60 * 〖School〗_(ij )+ 〗_ u_0j+〖u_1j * 〖Lunch Status〗_ij +r〗_ij, where 〖Spring〗_ij is the Spring STAR score for student i in class j, γ_oo is the expected Spring STAR score for the average student in a control class, γ_o1 is an estimate of the difference in expected Spring STAR scores between students in treatment and control classes (i.e., the treatment effect), 〖Treatment〗_j is an indicator of being in a treatment class (1 = treatment, 0 = control), ∑_1^6▒γ_X0 are the effects on Spring STAR scores of each of the control variables listed in the following two bullets: 〖Lunch Status〗_ij, 〖Special Ed Status〗_ij, 〖White〗_ij, 〖Other Race〗_ij, and 〖School〗_(ij )are dichotomous indicators of receiving free or reduced-price lunch, receiving special education services, being Anglo-American/White, being of “other” race (i.e., Hispanic-American or multi-ethnic) or attending the smaller of the two schools in this study, respectively. In this model, African-American/Black students served as the comparison group for race-related analyses. 〖Fall〗_ij is each student’s grand-mean centered Fall STAR score, u_0j is a teacher-level residual term, u_1j is a lunch status slope residual term, and r_ij is a residual term for each student within each class.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC & E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse.

 

 

Evidence for ESSA

 

Program Outcomes: One cluster-randomized study of PowerUp was conducted with 155 students in grades 6-8 attending one of two Title 1 middle schools. Ten classes of students with reading levels below the 35th percentile were randomly assigned to use PowerUp for 40 minutes of daily supplemental reading instruction or business-as-usual. After one semester, PowerUp students performed significantly higher on the STAR Reading Assessment (effect size = +0.36), qualifying PowerUp for the ESSA “Strong” category.

 

Number of Studies: 1

 

Average Effect Size: 0.36

 

Average Effect Size: 0.28

Full Report
How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
0
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Data Collection Practices

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