Lexia Core5 Reading
Study: Macaruso & Rodman (2009)

Summary

Overview: Lexia Reading Core5 is designed as a user-centered, interactive, and collaborative model of personalized learning, and is appropriate for accelerating reading skills development for students of all abilities in Pre-K to Grade 5. Students begin by taking an Auto Placement assessment, which assigns them to the appropriate start level in the program’s scope and sequence. Students then progress through the program levels at their own pace. Without interrupting the flow of instruction to administer a test, detailed progress monitoring, predictive, and diagnostic assessment tools tied directly to action plans and relevant embedded instructional resources provide educators with actionable, norm-referenced performance data with Performance Predictors and Prescriptions of Instructional Intensity for each student. Alignment to Standards Lexia Reading Core5 is closely aligned to most rigorous state and national standards, including the Common Core State Standards for Reading (Foundational Skills, Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text) as well as many Writing, Language, and Speaking and Listening standards. Response to Intervention/Instruction Lexia Reading Core5’s system of data-driven differentiated instruction and embedded assessment is a powerful tool to efficiently and effectively assist districts in accelerating and scaling their implementation of RTI plans. Lexia Reading Core5 provides Tier I, II, and III students the just-right level of instructional intensity at the right time, using scaffolding, branching, and targeted instruction. Students can be flexibly grouped for instruction, reporting, and tracking. The ongoing progress monitoring that is available in the reporting and adjustment of instruction provided both by the program and the off-line instructional components fits into a typical problem solving process used in most RTI models. Scope & Sequence: Lexia Reading Core5’s scope and sequence provides balanced skill development for all five strands of the “Essential Elements of Scientific Reading Instruction” as identified by the National Reading Panel (2000) – Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension. In addition, a sixth strand in Lexia Reading Core5, targeting “Structural Word Analysis”, helps form the bridge from decoding skills to advanced vocabulary and comprehension. (Skills Overview: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/core5_skillsoverview.0113_FINAL.pdf ) Personalized Learning: Lexia Reading Core5 provides a truly adaptive and personalized learning experience that enables students at every tier of instruction to advance their reading skills development, working at their own pace on activities based on the widely accepted standards. If a student struggles with a task, s/he is presented with a scaffolded approach to the skill. If the student continues to struggle, s/he receives skill-specific, direct instruction in the software. If necessary, explicit teacher-led instruction using scripted lesson materials are recommended to the teacher. This personalized approach enables at-risk students to close the gap more quickly and enables on-level or advanced students to continue their progress. Based on the multi-tiered model of supports, Lexia Reading Core5 is specifically designed to help teachers provide each student with the right level of instructional intensity at the right time. Lexia Lessons: If the student continues to struggle even after adaptive scaffolding and instruction while working independently online, the teacher is notified and provided with a scripted lesson for direct instruction on that skill. Lexia Skill Builders: When an online activity is successfully completed, the student can build automaticity and extend work in the expressive domain for that skill with paper-and-pencil activities. Lexia Instructional Connections: This resource was released in August 2015. They can be used at any time and provide strategies and routines to structure individual and group activities that integrate speaking, listening, reading and writing. Progress Monitoring: Data are automatically captured with each click of the mouse or touch of the screen while students interact with the activities, and reports are calculated in real time and available to teachers and administrators through a browser, or mobile devices from school or home. Reports are available at the Student, Class or Group, Grade, School, and District levels. Data Driven Action Plans: Teachers are provided with data-driven action plans—unique to each student—that are simple to interpret and drive differentiated instruction. Within the first month of use, teachers will know each student's probability of meeting end-of-year, grade-level benchmarks, and will receive the recommended resources and intensity of instruction necessary to change the trajectory for at-risk students. Student progress monitoring reports can be used to inform and collaborate with parents. Assessment Without Testing®: This research-proven, scalable technology provides screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostic assessment tools that predict performance and prescribe the instructional intensity each student requires to improve their reading achievement and attain end-of-year grade-level benchmark. Performance Predictors: Students receive monthly Performance Predictors that include an instructional risk level (On Target, Some Risk, High Risk). Predictors in the first month of school (after one month of use online) have been found to be 86% accurate in identifying students who are On Target to meet End-Of-Year Benchmarks. Lexia Reading Core5 also provides a Prescription of Instructional Intensity to improve the student’s chances of reaching the end-of-year benchmark. Access: Access to assessment data is available to teachers and administrators in real time through an internet browser or through the myLexia app for the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and Apple Watch. Teachers are notified by web-based reports or email when students require support or intervention. The Core5 online activities are accessible online through an internet browser or through the Core5 app for iPad or Android tablets. Students can work on Core5 in school, at home, in extended-day programs, or libraries and other community centers – anywhere there is internet access and a browser. On tablets, internet access will not be required as of August 2015. Ensuring Implementation Success: Implementing Lexia Reading Core5 with fidelity – understanding the reports, providing students with the prescribed intensity of instruction, and supporting student learning with off-line instructional and practice resources – is critical for student progress. Lexia Reading Core5 includes an extensive online resource library of interactive professional development videos, webinars, documentation, Lexia Lessons, and Lexia Skill Builders embedded into the administrative component of the program. Lexia’s online Training on Demand provides teachers and administrators with the information they need for a successful Lexia implementation at a time that meets their schedule.

Target Grades:
K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Target Populations:
  • Students with learning disabilities
  • English language learners
  • Any student at risk for academic failure
  • Other: On level and above level students
Area(s) of Focus:
  • Phonological awareness
  • Phonics/word study
  • Comprehension
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Spelling
  • Other: Structural Analysis
Where to Obtain:
Lexia Learning Systems
200 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
800-435-3942
www.lexialearning.com
Initial Cost:
$35.00 per student
Replacement Cost:
$35.00 per student per year

There are two ways to buy Core5 – individual student licenses or a site license (unlimited number of students at that site). Individual licenses costs between $30-40 a year per student, depending on the number of licenses purchased. A site license for a school that has 500 students would be $17 per student for a single-year license. As a subscription service, a one-year renewal is at the base rate, and multi-year renewals will reflect discount. Although purchasing training is not required, a launch training and two follow-up trainings per year are recommended. These are available in person (price may vary based on the needs of the school) or via webinar at different price points. E-learning modules are also available – nearly all of training videos are available for free through the program’s admin portal, myLexia.com.

Staff Qualified to Administer Include:
  • Special Education Teacher
  • General Education Teacher
  • Reading Specialist
  • Math Specialist
  • EL Specialist
  • Interventionist
  • Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
  • Paraprofessional
  • Other: We have found that the program works best when a number of adults are involved - all of the individuals that typically support the student's reading growth.
Training Requirements:
1-4 hours of training

Training is available in person, via webinar, and through e-learning course modules. The main documents include a short Teacher Training Guide, detailed online Core5 manual and myLexia reports guide. To start, a planned blended learning schedule (time dedicated for online instruction and conducting off-line components), a 60-90 minute launch training (through any of the above formats) and the Teacher Training Guide is enough to get students and teachers started using Core5. Follow-up trainings may include workshops on intensifying instruction using the three off-line resources, as well as adapting instruction using myLexia’s student performance data. Again, these workshops could be done using any of the formats. If a site is unable to schedule or purchase in-person training for whatever reason, customers can be assured that they will always be able to obtain answers to their questions via a live customer service representative by reaching out to our support phone number or email address. In addition, Lexia provides unlimited free access to our professional development library of interactive training videos. These targeted, quick videos cover the pedagogical basis of Core5 as well as practical matters of classroom implementation. Lexia Training on Demand is available anywhere anytime and is designed for teachers and administrators with no prior experience using LexiaReading Core5. (See https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2zQ12bcNheUelBJMFZzaDlVVkE/view?usp=sharing for descriptions of the modules.)


Our training manuals for Core5 were adapted from our training manuals for Early Reading, Primary Reading, and Lexia Strategies. These were refined over 5+ years and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. The quick Teacher Training Guide was field tested with 10+ sites and over 5,000 students during the 2012-2013 school year. The guide was revised for the launch in July 2013 and is now being revised again for August 2015 – all based on trainer and customer feedback. The manuals and guides are typically updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, the customer support team has a few FAQ documents that they update in real time, based on the time of year and include the topics where teachers typically need support. (Current version of guide: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/TG_10.0_10_0614_laser.pdf .)

Access to Technical Support:
The Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7 through the myLexia website. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays.
Recommended Administration Formats Include:
  • Individual students
  • Small group of students
Minimum Number of Minutes Per Session:
20
Minimum Number of Sessions Per Week:
1
Minimum Number of Weeks:
25
Detailed Implementation Manual or Instructions Available:
Yes
Is Technology Required?
  • Computer or tablet
  • Internet connection

Program Information

Descriptive Information

Please provide a description of program, including intended use:

Overview: Lexia Reading Core5 is designed as a user-centered, interactive, and collaborative model of personalized learning, and is appropriate for accelerating reading skills development for students of all abilities in Pre-K to Grade 5. Students begin by taking an Auto Placement assessment, which assigns them to the appropriate start level in the program’s scope and sequence. Students then progress through the program levels at their own pace. Without interrupting the flow of instruction to administer a test, detailed progress monitoring, predictive, and diagnostic assessment tools tied directly to action plans and relevant embedded instructional resources provide educators with actionable, norm-referenced performance data with Performance Predictors and Prescriptions of Instructional Intensity for each student. Alignment to Standards Lexia Reading Core5 is closely aligned to most rigorous state and national standards, including the Common Core State Standards for Reading (Foundational Skills, Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text) as well as many Writing, Language, and Speaking and Listening standards. Response to Intervention/Instruction Lexia Reading Core5’s system of data-driven differentiated instruction and embedded assessment is a powerful tool to efficiently and effectively assist districts in accelerating and scaling their implementation of RTI plans. Lexia Reading Core5 provides Tier I, II, and III students the just-right level of instructional intensity at the right time, using scaffolding, branching, and targeted instruction. Students can be flexibly grouped for instruction, reporting, and tracking. The ongoing progress monitoring that is available in the reporting and adjustment of instruction provided both by the program and the off-line instructional components fits into a typical problem solving process used in most RTI models. Scope & Sequence: Lexia Reading Core5’s scope and sequence provides balanced skill development for all five strands of the “Essential Elements of Scientific Reading Instruction” as identified by the National Reading Panel (2000) – Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency, and Comprehension. In addition, a sixth strand in Lexia Reading Core5, targeting “Structural Word Analysis”, helps form the bridge from decoding skills to advanced vocabulary and comprehension. (Skills Overview: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/core5_skillsoverview.0113_FINAL.pdf ) Personalized Learning: Lexia Reading Core5 provides a truly adaptive and personalized learning experience that enables students at every tier of instruction to advance their reading skills development, working at their own pace on activities based on the widely accepted standards. If a student struggles with a task, s/he is presented with a scaffolded approach to the skill. If the student continues to struggle, s/he receives skill-specific, direct instruction in the software. If necessary, explicit teacher-led instruction using scripted lesson materials are recommended to the teacher. This personalized approach enables at-risk students to close the gap more quickly and enables on-level or advanced students to continue their progress. Based on the multi-tiered model of supports, Lexia Reading Core5 is specifically designed to help teachers provide each student with the right level of instructional intensity at the right time. Lexia Lessons: If the student continues to struggle even after adaptive scaffolding and instruction while working independently online, the teacher is notified and provided with a scripted lesson for direct instruction on that skill. Lexia Skill Builders: When an online activity is successfully completed, the student can build automaticity and extend work in the expressive domain for that skill with paper-and-pencil activities. Lexia Instructional Connections: This resource was released in August 2015. They can be used at any time and provide strategies and routines to structure individual and group activities that integrate speaking, listening, reading and writing. Progress Monitoring: Data are automatically captured with each click of the mouse or touch of the screen while students interact with the activities, and reports are calculated in real time and available to teachers and administrators through a browser, or mobile devices from school or home. Reports are available at the Student, Class or Group, Grade, School, and District levels. Data Driven Action Plans: Teachers are provided with data-driven action plans—unique to each student—that are simple to interpret and drive differentiated instruction. Within the first month of use, teachers will know each student's probability of meeting end-of-year, grade-level benchmarks, and will receive the recommended resources and intensity of instruction necessary to change the trajectory for at-risk students. Student progress monitoring reports can be used to inform and collaborate with parents. Assessment Without Testing®: This research-proven, scalable technology provides screening, progress monitoring, and diagnostic assessment tools that predict performance and prescribe the instructional intensity each student requires to improve their reading achievement and attain end-of-year grade-level benchmark. Performance Predictors: Students receive monthly Performance Predictors that include an instructional risk level (On Target, Some Risk, High Risk). Predictors in the first month of school (after one month of use online) have been found to be 86% accurate in identifying students who are On Target to meet End-Of-Year Benchmarks. Lexia Reading Core5 also provides a Prescription of Instructional Intensity to improve the student’s chances of reaching the end-of-year benchmark. Access: Access to assessment data is available to teachers and administrators in real time through an internet browser or through the myLexia app for the iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, and Apple Watch. Teachers are notified by web-based reports or email when students require support or intervention. The Core5 online activities are accessible online through an internet browser or through the Core5 app for iPad or Android tablets. Students can work on Core5 in school, at home, in extended-day programs, or libraries and other community centers – anywhere there is internet access and a browser. On tablets, internet access will not be required as of August 2015. Ensuring Implementation Success: Implementing Lexia Reading Core5 with fidelity – understanding the reports, providing students with the prescribed intensity of instruction, and supporting student learning with off-line instructional and practice resources – is critical for student progress. Lexia Reading Core5 includes an extensive online resource library of interactive professional development videos, webinars, documentation, Lexia Lessons, and Lexia Skill Builders embedded into the administrative component of the program. Lexia’s online Training on Demand provides teachers and administrators with the information they need for a successful Lexia implementation at a time that meets their schedule.

The program is intended for use in the following age(s) and/or grade(s).

not selected Age 0-3
not selected Age 3-5
selected Kindergarten
selected First grade
selected Second grade
selected Third grade
selected Fourth grade
selected Fifth grade
not selected Sixth grade
not selected Seventh grade
not selected Eighth grade
not selected Ninth grade
not selected Tenth grade
not selected Eleventh grade
not selected Twelth grade


The program is intended for use with the following groups.

not selected Students with disabilities only
selected Students with learning disabilities
not selected Students with intellectual disabilities
not selected Students with emotional or behavioral disabilities
selected English language learners
selected Any student at risk for academic failure
not selected Any student at risk for emotional and/or behavioral difficulties
selected Other
If other, please describe:
On level and above level students

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: Please indicate the academic area of focus.

Early Literacy

not selected Print knowledge/awareness
not selected Alphabet knowledge
not selected Phonological awareness
not selected Phonological awarenessEarly writing
not selected Early decoding abilities
not selected Other

If other, please describe:

Language

not selected Expressive and receptive vocabulary
not selected Grammar
not selected Syntax
not selected Listening comprehension
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Reading

selected Phonological awareness
selected Phonics/word study
selected Comprehension
selected Fluency
selected Vocabulary
selected Spelling
selected Other
If other, please describe:
Structural Analysis

Mathematics

not selected Computation
not selected Concepts and/or word problems
not selected Whole number arithmetic
not selected Comprehensive: Includes computation/procedures, problem solving, and mathematical concepts
not selected Algebra
not selected Fractions, decimals (rational number)
not selected Geometry and measurement
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Writing

not selected Handwriting
not selected Spelling
not selected Sentence construction
not selected Planning and revising
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Please indicate the behavior area of focus.

Externalizing Behavior

not selected Physical Aggression
not selected Verbal Threats
not selected Property Destruction
not selected Noncompliance
not selected High Levels of Disengagement
not selected Disruptive Behavior
not selected Social Behavior (e.g., Peer interactions, Adult interactions)
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Internalizing Behavior

not selected Depression
not selected Anxiety
not selected Social Difficulties (e.g., withdrawal)
not selected School Phobia
not selected Other
If other, please describe:

Acquisition and cost information

Where to obtain:

Address
200 Baker Avenue Ext Concord, MA 01742
Phone Number
800-435-3942
Website
www.lexialearning.com

Initial cost for implementing program:

Cost
$35.00
Unit of cost
student

Replacement cost per unit for subsequent use:

Cost
$35.00
Unit of cost
student
Duration of license
year

Additional cost information:

Describe basic pricing plan and structure of the program. Also, provide information on what is included in the published program, as well as what is not included but required for implementation (e.g., computer and/or internet access)

There are two ways to buy Core5 – individual student licenses or a site license (unlimited number of students at that site). Individual licenses costs between $30-40 a year per student, depending on the number of licenses purchased. A site license for a school that has 500 students would be $17 per student for a single-year license. As a subscription service, a one-year renewal is at the base rate, and multi-year renewals will reflect discount. Although purchasing training is not required, a launch training and two follow-up trainings per year are recommended. These are available in person (price may vary based on the needs of the school) or via webinar at different price points. E-learning modules are also available – nearly all of training videos are available for free through the program’s admin portal, myLexia.com.

Program Specifications

Setting for which the program is designed.

selected Individual students
selected Small group of students
not selected BI ONLY: A classroom of students

If group-delivered, how many students compose a small group?

  

Program administration time

Minimum number of minutes per session
20
Minimum number of sessions per week
1
Minimum number of weeks
25
not selected N/A (implemented until effective)

If intervention program is intended to occur over less frequently than 60 minutes a week for approximately 8 weeks, justify the level of intensity:

Does the program include highly specified teacher manuals or step by step instructions for implementation?
Yes

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: Is the program affiliated with a broad school- or class-wide management program?

If yes, please identify and describe the broader school- or class-wide management program:

Does the program require technology?
Yes

If yes, what technology is required to implement your program?
selected Computer or tablet
selected Internet connection
not selected Other technology (please specify)

If your program requires additional technology not listed above, please describe the required technology and the extent to which it is combined with teacher small-group instruction/intervention:
The Core5 program requires a web-enabled device, such as a desktop computer, laptop, or tablet (7 inches or more – IOS or Andriod). The online component is conducted independently, with one student per device. Reporting on the embedded assessment can be accessed through a web-browser on any device, or through our IOS app myLexia (versions for iPad, iPhone, and Apple Watch). Small group instruction does not require anything more than the printed lesson and pedagogical materials (e.g., picture cards, letter tiles, crayons). If the teacher wishes, however, s/he could view the scripted part of the lesson on a tablet and only print the sheets that require student manipulation. (Core5 technical setup guide: Sample Lessons and Skill Builders: http://lexialearning.com/lrtraining/Core5_LLSB_Sampler_FINAL.pdf; Reports overview: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/Core5_Reports_Flyer_0814_LTR-F-P.pdf )

Training

How many people are needed to implement the program ?

Is training for the instructor or interventionist required?
Yes
If yes, is the necessary training free or at-cost?

Describe the time required for instructor or interventionist training:
1-4 hours of training

Describe the format and content of the instructor or interventionist training:
Training is available in person, via webinar, and through e-learning course modules. The main documents include a short Teacher Training Guide, detailed online Core5 manual and myLexia reports guide. To start, a planned blended learning schedule (time dedicated for online instruction and conducting off-line components), a 60-90 minute launch training (through any of the above formats) and the Teacher Training Guide is enough to get students and teachers started using Core5. Follow-up trainings may include workshops on intensifying instruction using the three off-line resources, as well as adapting instruction using myLexia’s student performance data. Again, these workshops could be done using any of the formats. If a site is unable to schedule or purchase in-person training for whatever reason, customers can be assured that they will always be able to obtain answers to their questions via a live customer service representative by reaching out to our support phone number or email address. In addition, Lexia provides unlimited free access to our professional development library of interactive training videos. These targeted, quick videos cover the pedagogical basis of Core5 as well as practical matters of classroom implementation. Lexia Training on Demand is available anywhere anytime and is designed for teachers and administrators with no prior experience using LexiaReading Core5. (See https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2zQ12bcNheUelBJMFZzaDlVVkE/view?usp=sharing for descriptions of the modules.)

What types or professionals are qualified to administer your program?

selected Special Education Teacher
selected General Education Teacher
selected Reading Specialist
selected Math Specialist
selected EL Specialist
selected Interventionist
selected Student Support Services Personnel (e.g., counselor, social worker, school psychologist, etc.)
not selected Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Therapist or Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA)
selected Paraprofessional
selected Other

If other, please describe:

We have found that the program works best when a number of adults are involved - all of the individuals that typically support the student's reading growth.
Does the program assume that the instructor or interventionist has expertise in a given area?
No   

If yes, please describe: 


Are training manuals and materials available?
Yes

Describe how the training manuals or materials were field-tested with the target population of instructors or interventionist and students:
Our training manuals for Core5 were adapted from our training manuals for Early Reading, Primary Reading, and Lexia Strategies. These were refined over 5+ years and cover all of the instructional information that most teachers and administrators required. The quick Teacher Training Guide was field tested with 10+ sites and over 5,000 students during the 2012-2013 school year. The guide was revised for the launch in July 2013 and is now being revised again for August 2015 – all based on trainer and customer feedback. The manuals and guides are typically updated each summer in response to any feature changes in the program. Additionally, the customer support team has a few FAQ documents that they update in real time, based on the time of year and include the topics where teachers typically need support. (Current version of guide: http://lexialearning.com/uploads/page-body/TG_10.0_10_0614_laser.pdf .)

Do you provide fidelity of implementation guidance such as a checklist for implementation in your manual?
Yes

Can practitioners obtain ongoing professional and technical support?
Yes

If yes, please specify where/how practitioners can obtain support:

The Training on Demand videos and interactive modules are available 24/7 through the myLexia website. Additionally, our customer support has online resources that are available 24/7 as well as live support via a toll-free number Monday through Friday 8am-6pm EST, except for holidays.

Summary of Evidence Base

Please identify, to the best of your knowledge, all the research studies that have been conducted to date supporting the efficacy of your program, including studies currently or previously submitted to NCII for review. Please provide citations only (in APA format); do not include any descriptive information on these studies. NCII staff will also conduct a search to confirm that the list you provide is accurate.

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2009). Benefits of computer-assisted instruction for struggling readers in middle school. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24, 1, 103-113.

 

Macaruso, P., & Walker, A. (2008). The efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for advancing literacy skills in kindergarten children. Reading Psychology, 29, 266-287.

 

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2011). Efficacy of computer-assisted instruction for the development of early literacy skills in young children. Reading Psychology, 32, 172-196.

 

Macaruso, P., & Rodman, A. (2011). Benefits of computer-assisted instruction to support reading acquisition in English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal34, 301–315

 

Macaruso, P., Hook, P.E., & McCabe, R.  (2006). The efficacy of computer-based supplementary phonics programs for advancing reading skills in at-risk elementary students.  Journal of Research in Reading, 29, 162-172.

 

Draper Rodríguez, C., Filler, J., & Higgins, K. (2012). Using primary language support via computer to improve reading comprehension skills of first-grade English language learners, Computers in the Schools: Interdisciplinary Journal of Practice, Theory, and Applied Research, 29(3), 253-267.

Study Information

Study Citations

Macaruso, P. & Rodman, A. (2009). Benefits of computer-assisted instruction for struggling readers in middle school. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 24(1) 103-113.

Participants Full Bobble

Describe how students were selected to participate in the study:
Students were enrolled in a remedial reading program with sixth and seventh grade students in a public middle school in St. George, Utah. Students with IQ score 70 or below were omitted from analyses. Three other students were also omitted from analysis: two suffered from a traumatic brain injury and the third had a diagnosis of autism.

Describe how students were identified as being at risk for academic failure (AI) or as having emotional or behavioral difficulties (BI):
Students were originally selected for the program based on low scores on the Developmental Reading Assessment, coupled with teacher referrals. The Developmental Reading Assessment assesses reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension.

ACADEMIC INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • below the 30th percentile on local or national norm, or
  • identified disability related to the focus of the intervention?
%

BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTION: What percentage of participants were at risk, as measured by one or more of the following criteria:
  • emotional disability label,
  • placed in an alternative school/classroom,
  • non-responsive to Tiers 1 and 2, or
  • designation of severe problem behaviors on a validated scale or through observation?
%

Specify which condition is the submitted intervention:
The teacher selected at random two classes to be the treatment classes. In addition to the curriculum used in the class (Language! combined with Read Right in small groups), these classes used Lexia Reading’s Strategies for Older Students for 20-30 minutes per session, two or three times per week.

Specify which condition is the control condition:
The control class received all instruction with Language! combined with Read Right in a whole-class format (not small groups, which was required to accommodate the Lexia Reading instruction). There were no obvious differences between classes in amount of direct instruction time with the core curriculum.

If you have a third, competing condition, in addition to your control and intervention condition, identify what the competing condition is (data from this competing condition will not be used):

Using the tables that follow, provide data demonstrating comparability of the program group and control group in terms of demographics.

Grade Level

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Age less than 1
Age 1
Age 2
Age 3
Age 4
Age 5
Kindergarten
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4
Grade 5
Grade 6 16 15 4.19
Grade 7 11 0 3.78
Grade 8
Grade 9
Grade 10
Grade 11
Grade 12

Race–Ethnicity

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
African American
American Indian
Asian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic 4 3 0.31
White 23 12 0.27
Other

Socioeconomic Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Subsidized Lunch
No Subsidized Lunch

Disability Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Speech-Language Impairments
Learning Disabilities 16 5 0.43
Behavior Disorders
Emotional Disturbance
Intellectual Disabilities
Other
Not Identified With a Disability 11 10 0.83

ELL Status

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
English Language Learner 4 3 0.31
Not English Language Learner 22 12 0.36

Gender

Demographic Program
Number
Control
Number
Effect Size: Cox Index
for Binary Differences
Female 12 7 0.22
Male 15 8 0.15

Mean Effect Size

1.09

For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences between groups in the descriptions below, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not demographic characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.

Design Half Bobble

What method was used to determine students' placement in treatment/control groups?
Random
Please describe the assignment method or the process for defining treatment/comparison groups.
The sample consisted of 47 sixth-grade and seventh-grade students attending a public middle school in St George, Utah. The students were enrolled in a remedial reading programme, which was taught by the same teacher in three sessions. Students were originally selected for the programme on the basis of low scores on the Developmental Reading Assessment (Beaver and Carter 2003), coupled with teacher referrals. The Developmental Reading Assessment assesses reading accuracy, fluency and comprehension. Students are asked to read passages aloud and provide written responses to comprehension questions. Students who met the criteria for remedial instruction were randomly placed in one of the three classes. All classes were determined by the teacher to have comparatively similar skill distributions among students. The teacher then selected at random two classes to be treatment classes, and designated the third class as a control class. There were 32 students in the treatment classes and 15 students in the control class.

What was the unit of assignment?
Students
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit of assignment:

What unit(s) were used for primary data analysis?
not selected Schools
not selected Teachers
selected Students
not selected Classes
not selected Other
If other, please specify:

Please describe the unit(s) used for primary data analysis:

Fidelity of Implementation Empty Bobble

How was the program delivered?
selected Individually
not selected Small Group
not selected Classroom

If small group, answer the following:

Average group size
Minimum group size
Maximum group size

What was the duration of the intervention (If duration differed across participants, settings, or behaviors, describe for each.)?

Weeks
20.00
Sessions per week
3.00
Duration of sessions in minutes
25.00
What were the background, experience, training, and ongoing support of the instructors or interventionists?
The teacher had used the Lexia S.O.S. program during the previous school year and thus was familiar with the program and management of CAI in the classroom.

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained.
Lexia Reading software provided specific information about the amount of time and when students used the software.

What were the results on the fidelity-of-treatment implementation measure?
Treatment students averaged 50 sessions over the school year. Lexia Reading has established 45 sessions over the school year as a minimum use criterion for effective implementation. This criterion is based on research findings comparing reading gains of students who have or have not shown adequate use (see Macaruso & Hook, 2007). Of the 28 students in the treatment group, 75% met the 45 session criterion. Sessions were missed due to absences, school-wide activities, and students attending outside services such as speech therapy.

Was the fidelity measure also used in control classrooms?

Measures and Results

Measures Targeted : Full Bobble
Measures Broader : Full Bobble

Study measures are classified as targeted, broader, or administrative data according to the following definitions:

  • Targeted measures
    Assess outcomes, such as competencies or skills that the program was directly targeted to improve.
    • In the academic domain, targeted measures typically are not the very items taught but rather novel items structured similarly to the content addressed in the program. For example, if a program taught word-attack skills, a targeted measure would be decoding of pseudo words. If a program taught comprehension of cause-effect passages, a targeted measure would be answering questions about cause-effect passages structured similarly to those used during intervention, but not including the very passages used for intervention.
    • In the behavioral domain, targeted measures evaluate aspects of external or internal behavior the program was directly targeted to improve and are operationally defined.
  • Broader measures
    Assess outcomes that are related to the competencies or skills targeted by the program but not directly taught in the program.
    • In the academic domain, if a program taught word-level reading skill, a broader measure would be answering questions about passages the student reads. If a program taught calculation skill, a broader measure would be solving word problems that require the same kinds of calculation skill taught in the program.
    • In the behavioral domain, if a program taught a specific skill like on-task behavior in one classroom, a broader measure would be academic performance in that setting or on-task behavior in another setting.
  • Administrative data measures apply only to behavioral intervention tools and are measures such as office discipline referrals (ODRs) and graduation rates which do not have psychometric properties as do other, more traditional targeted or broader measures.

Click here for more information on effect size.


What populations are you submitting outcome data for?
selected Full sample
not selected Students at or below the 20th percentile
not selected English language learners
not selected Racial/ethnic subgroups
not selected Economically disadvantaged students (low socioeconomic status)
Targeted Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Broader Measure Reverse Coded? Reliability Relevance Exposure
Administrative Data Measure Reverse Coded? Relevance

Posttest Data

Targeted Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Full Sample)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Targeted Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Broader Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P

Administrative Measures (Subgroups)

Measure Sample Type Effect Size P
For any substantively (e.g., effect size ≥ 0.25 for pretest or demographic differences) or statistically significant (e.g., p < 0.05) pretest differences, please describe the extent to which these differences are related to the impact of the treatment. For example, if analyses were conducted to determine that outcomes from this study are due to the intervention and not pretest characteristics, please describe the results of those analyses here.
Please explain any missing data or instances of measures with incomplete pre- or post-test data.
If you have excluded a variable or data that are reported in the study being submitted, explain the rationale for exclusion:
Describe the analyses used to determine whether the intervention produced changes in student outcomes:
Analyses of covariance comparing post-test means with pre-test means serving as covariates confirmed a significant difference on the Word Attack subtest.

Additional Research

Is the program reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA?
WWC & E-ESSA
Summary of WWC / E-ESSA Findings :

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Beginning Readers Protocol

Effectiveness: Lexia Reading was found to have potentially positive effects on alphabetics, no discernible effects on fluency, potentially positive effects on comprehension, and no discernible effects on general reading achievement.

Studies Reviewed: 3 studies meet standards out of 4 studies total

Full Report

 

Evidence for ESSA

Program Outcomes: Two studies, both in urban Massachusetts districts, evaluated Lexia in comparison to control groups. Outcomes were positive, but not significant at the school level. There were significant effects at the student level, however, qualifying Lexia for the ESSA “Promising” category.

Number of Studies: 2

Average Effect Size: 0.31

Full Report

How many additional research studies are potentially eligible for NCII review?
3
Citations for Additional Research Studies :

Gale, D. (2006). The effect of computer-delivered phonological awareness training on the early literacy skills of students identified as at-risk for reading failure. Retrieved May, 2008 from the University of South Florida website: http://purl.fcla.edu/usf/dc/et/SFE0001531(link is external).

Macaruso, P. & Rodman, A. (2011). Benefits of computer-assisted instruction to support reading acquisition in English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 34, 301-315.

McMurray, S. (2013). An evaluation of the use of Lexia Reading software with children in Year 3, Northern Ireland (6‐to 7‐year olds). Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs13(1), 15-25.

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