Group Contingency

Study: Donaldson, Vollmer, Krous, Downs, & Berard (2011)

Study Type: Single-Subject Design

Participants: Unconvincing Evidence

Risk Status: The students in the classroom were not identified as having an emotional or behavioral disorder though the classrooms could be characterized as having high rates of disruptive behavior.

Demographics:

 

Age/ Grade

Gender

Race-ethnicity

Socioeconomic status

Disability Status

ELL status

Other Relevant Descriptive Characteristics

Case 1: Class 1

Kindergarten

53% Female (average across classrooms)

69% Caucasian (average across classrooms)

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

No other details provided (Donaldson et al., 2011).

Case 2: Class 2

Kindergarten

53% Female (average across classrooms)

69% Caucasian (average across classrooms)

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

No other details provided (Donaldson et al., 2011).

Case 3: Class 3

Kindergarten

53% Female (average across classrooms)

69% Caucasian (average across classrooms)

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

No other details provided (Donaldson et al., 2011).

Case 4: Class 4

Kindergarten

53% Female (average across classrooms)

69% Caucasian (average across classrooms)

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

No other details provided (Donaldson et al., 2011).

Case 5: Class 5

Kindergarten

53% Female (average across classrooms)

69% Caucasian (average across classrooms)

Not reported

Not reported

Not reported

No other details provided (Donaldson et al., 2011).

Training of Instructors: The intervention was implemented mostly by both the researcher and the teacher, in different phases. Few details on the credentials of the teachers were provided and the researcher appears to have a PhD.

Design: Partially Convincing Evidence

Does the study include three data points or sufficient number to document a stable performance within that phase? Yes

Is there opportunity for at least three demonstrations of experimental control? Yes

If the study is an alternating treatment design, are there five repetitions of the alternating sequence? Not applicable

If the study is a multiple baseline, is it concurrent? No

Implemented with Fidelity: Partially Convincing Evidence

Description of when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained: Fidelity data was reported for the teacher implementation phase only. This data reflected the number of rule violation marks recorded as compared to the total observed by the researcher.

Results on the fidelity of treatment implementation measure: Teachers noted rule violations 60% of the time as compared to the total number of violations.

Measures Targeted: Convincing Evidence

Targeted Measure

Reliability statistics

Relevance to program focus

Exposure to related support among control group

Percentage of Intervals in which inappropriate behavior was observed.

Interobserver agreement was measured with a percentage agreement index. The overall agreement mean was approximately 85% across all classrooms.

The purpose of the intervention was to decrease the rate of inappropriate and disruptive behaviors in the classroom.

N/A

 

Broader Measure

Reliability statistics

Relevance to program focus

Exposure to related support among control group

N/A

 

 

 

 

Mean ES Targeted Outcomes: N/A

Mean ES Administrative Outcomes: N/A

Effect Size:

Visual Analysis (Single-Subject Designs): Convincing Evidence

Description of the method of analyses used to determine whether the intervention condition improved relative to baseline phase (e.g. visual analysis, computation of change score, mean difference): Visual inspection was used to determine the overall effectiveness of the intervention for both on-task behaviors.

Results in terms of within and between phase patterns: The within baseline data was moderately variable for each of the classrooms. The level of the baseline data did vary though it does appear that there were reasonable concerns that the behavior was problematic. Following implementation of the intervention for each classroom, there was a reduction in the level of inappropriate behaviors exhibited. These did seem to stabilize for each class. It also appears that these effects were maintained once the teacher took over implementation for all teachers though Teacher #4 did experience a small increase in level and trend before the data stabilized at a similar level to the researcher implemented phase.

Disaggregated Outcome Data Available for Demographic Subgroups: No

Target Behavior(s): Externalizing

Delivery: Individual, Small groups, Classroom

Fidelity of Implementation Check List Available: No

Minimum Interventionist Requirements: Paraprofessional, No training required

Intervention Reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse: No

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review: 0 studies