Read Right

Study: Scott, Nelsestuen, Autio, Deussen, & Hanita (2010)

Scott, C., Nelsestuen, K., Autio, E., Deussen, T., & Hanita, M. (2010). Evaluation of Read Right in Omaha middle and high schools 2009—2010. Portland, OR: Education Northwest.
Descriptive Information Usage Acquisition and Cost

 

Program Specifications and Requirements

Training

Read Right is an intervention program for
Tier 2 and Tier 3 struggling readers in
Grades 2-12. Rigorous independent research validated that Read Right produced significant positive effect after only one semester of tutoring. Read Right’s small-group tutoring format and methodologies assimilate findings from learning theory, reading theory, language acquisition theory, and more, and reflect a new view of what is required for excellent reading ability to develop. Grounded in Piaget’s theory of interactive constructivism, the Read Right intervention model uses Procedural Learning and what is known and understood about the plasticity of the brain to retrain readers to read correctly in every respect. The goal of the program is to produce effortless reading that is fully comprehended each and every time students read. Read Right is appropriate for regular education students, special education students, and English Language Learners.

Two Delivery Models are Available:
--Site-Based (delivered to your students by your teachers and aides trained in Read Right methodology)
-- Online Tutoring Service (delivered to your students by online tutors employed by Read Right Systems)

Site Based Tutoring: Read Right consultants come to the client school to train classroom teachers and/or aides to implement the methodology. The small-group tutoring format allows each tutor to work with up to 5 students at one time. Tutors tutoring six periods each day can serve up to 30 students daily; four tutors trained in one training cycle can serve up to 120 students daily. 

Read Right’s Four Components:
Read Right methodology consists of four separate components: The Excellent Reading Component, the Coached Reading Component, the Independent Reading Component, and the Critical Thinking Component. The methodology was found to be unique by the U.S. Patent Office, with a patent issued to Kyle Tadlock and Dee Tadlock, Ph.D. For information on the methodology, contact Read Right Systems at info@readright.com

Online Tutoring by Read Right Systems Staff:  Read Right small-group tutoring can be delivered Online, via the latest video conferencing technology. Students see and hear the tutor and the tutor sees and hears each student. This option is appropriate for before or after school programs; supplemental education services; potential school clients that may want to pilot Read Right before beginning a site-based adoption; home bound students; schools that have limited staffing; or clients who have only small numbers of students. The Online format is 1 tutor to 4 students. It has been used effectively with regular education, special education, and English language learners in mixed groups.

Visit www.readright.com for information.

Read Right is intended for use with students in Grades 2 – 12, including Tier 2 and 3 readers, regular and special
education students & English language learners

The methodology is documented to be effective with
mild to severe reading prob-lems, including dyslexia and other learning disabilities (developmental delays, autism-spectrum disorders, ADD/ADHD, speech issues, and Down syndrome). Read Right’s success with speech issues is related to its intensive work with oral reading.

Read Right has been used successfully with advanced placement students whose reading is not as efficient or effective as it could be.

The academic area of focus is reading, addressing all of the five competencies in one cohesive program: phonological awareness, phonics, word identification and vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension.

Where to Obtain:

Read Right Systems, Inc.
310 West Birch
Shelton, WA 98584
Phone #: 360-427-9440
Website: www.readright.com

Costs/Site Based Model:
Training Costs/Year 1:  Training for up to four tutors, with 120 students served daily and an estimated 160 students served per year: $466 per student. This cost includes the optional train-the-trainer model implemented in the 2nd Semester, allowing schools and districts to grow their programs at will, with four more tutors trained and 120 more students served.

Year 2 and All Years After:
In subsequent years, the cost is $9.38 per student (160 students served) due to an annual lease fee of $1,500 for a required server and MP3 players. An optional re-certification package is available ($8,800 annually) to insure fidelity to the methodology by site-based tutors, to provide advanced training for the trainer, and to share in updates resulting from our continuous improvement efforts. The estimated cost per student with recertification: $64.38.

Costs/Online Tutoring:
Turn-key tutoring services are provided directly to students via Online video conferencing technology. No site-based training of staff is required, although technical instructions are provided. Schools must purchase one Online Tutoring Service (OTS) library per program site: $2,200, with up to four students tutored per hour at a cost of $64 for all four students. Forty hours of tutoring would cost $2,560. Combining the initial library cost and 40 hours of tutoring, the cost per student would be $1,190. After the one-time purchase of the OTS library, the cost per student drops to $640 for 40 hours of tutoring.

Read Right is designed for use with individuals and small groups of five students. Sessions are 40-60 minutes, and it is recommended that 2-5 sessions are delivered per week per student for 9-36 weeks (depending on the severity of the reading problem). The program includes a comprehensive Manual, used regularly by Tutors.

Site Based Tutoring: The turn-key package includes comprehensive training; a leased computer and MP3 system; comprehensive tutor manuals and student assessment materials for placement; standardized, norm-referenced tests for pre- and post- evaluation; a comprehensive program library with 800 stories and books plus 300 recorded selections; project management systems; student management systems. The MP3 system provided with the program includes a server, which stores audio files for downloading onto each student’s MP3 player (used in one component of the four-component tutoring system). The server also serves as the repository for data entered to track each student’s hours of tutoring and progress (measured in grade-levels advanced as determined by the grade-level of books used during the tutoring process). The data are used as the basis for the monthly reports.

Online Tutoring: 
The online tutoring program offers service to four students at one time. Implementation requires that each student have access to a computer with internet connection, a webcam, and a headset with speaker. Schools must provide this equipment. The Online tutoring format for schools requires the one-time purchase of an Online Tutoring Service Library ($2,200).

Site Based Tutoring:
Seven weeks of hands-on tutoring (all day every day plus an hour after students leave) spread over 18 weeks of training are required for school staff in implementing the Read Right methodology. Because the training is hands-on, service to students starts immediately. Training focuses on developing teachers’ skill to become highly competent intervention tutors and proficient in performing individual student assessments, as well as in using the project management and student management systems, training materials, implementation manuals, reporting systems, and quality assurance systems.

Up to 4 school staff members are trained at one time. They can be certified teachers, instructional aides, or a combination of the two.

In addition, certified Read Right Tutors can receive an additional 5 weeks of training to become Read Right Trainers to provide in-house expertise required for expansion, staff replacement, and quality assurance.

Professional development credit is available from Central Washington University for Read Right training.

The monthly reports are examined by Read Right personnel and become the basis of quality assurance activity. Tutors who have students who are progressing slowly are e-mailed, Skyped, or telephoned to discuss the cause of the slow movement and solutions. Tutors or Trainers can initiate phone calls or emails at any time to consultants and even to the developer of the methodology and her research assistant. In addition, technical support with the MP3 System is available via email , Skype, and telephone.

Online Tutoring:
No training is required for school-based staff. Directions and assistance are provided to help the students know how to log onto and use the Elluminate software that we use to conduct the tutoring.

 

Participants: Convincing Evidence

Sample size: 424 students from four schools (450 were pretested; 216 in the treatment group and 208 in the control group)

Risk Status: Students had to be at least two grade levels behind in reading according to state reading tests, and/or be an ELL and/or a special education student who participated in regular classes without an aide. For the purposes of the study, eligible students could not have had 10 or more hours of Read Right tutoring in the past.

Demographics:

  Program Control p of chi square
Number Percentage Number Percentage

Grade level

  Kindergarten

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 1

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 2

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 3

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 4

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 5

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 6

 

 

 

 

 

  Grade 7

73

34%

59

28%

.23

  Grade 8

51

24%

54

26%

.58

  Grade 9

88

41%

95

46%

.31

  Grade 10

1

0.5%

0

0%

Cell sizes too small

  Grade 11

3

1%

0

0%

Cell sizes too small

  Grade 12

 

 

 

 

 

Mean Age

         

Race-ethnicity

  African-American

78

36%

77

37%

.85

  American Indian

4

2%

2

1%

Cell sizes too small

  Asian/Pacific Islander

3

1%

2

1%

Cell sizes too small

  Hispanic

88

41%

86

41%

.90

  White

43

20%

41

20%

.96

  Other

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

Socioeconomic status

  Subsidized lunch

170

79%

169

81%

.51

  No subsidized lunch

46

21%

39

19%

.51

Disability status

  Speech-language impairments

 

 

 

 

 

  Learning disabilities

 

 

 

 

 

  Behavior disorders

 

 

 

 

 

  Intellectual disabilities

 

 

 

 

 

  Special education*

55

26%

50

24%

.73

  Not identified with a disability

161

75%

158

76%

.73

ELL status

  English language learner

39

18%

33

16%

.55

  Not English language learner

177

82%

175

84%

.55

Gender

Female

115

53%

105

51%

.57

Male

101

47%

103

50%

.57

*Data on specific disability types were not collected. Special education students whose IEPs required self-contained placements were excluded from the study. All other students were eligible.

Training of Instructors: Tutors (4 teachers and 12 paraprofessionals) participated in 7 weeks of training over 18 weeks. Each was required to pass a tutoring “test” to be certified. In this test, the tutor was observed during tutoring by a Read Right tutor trainer and rated on performance.

Design: Convincing Evidence

Did the study use random assignment?: Yes.

If not, was it a tenable quasi-experiment?: Not applicable.

If the study used random assignment, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures used as covariates or on pretest measures also used as outcomes?: Yes.

If not, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures central to the study (i.e., pretest measures also used as outcomes), and outcomes were analyzed to adjust for pretreatment differences? Not applicable.

Were the program and control groups demographically comparable at pretreatment?: Yes.

Was there attrition bias1? No.

Did the unit of analysis match the unit for random assignment (for randomized studies) or the assignment strategy (for quasi-experiments)?: Yes.

1 NCII follows guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) in determining attrition bias. The WWC model for determining bias based on a combination of differential and overall attrition rates can be found on pages 13-14 of this document: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/reference_resources/wwc_procedures_v2_1_standards_handbook.pdf

 

Fidelity of Implementation: Partially Convincing Evidence

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained: The four schools that participated in the experimental study were chosen to participate because the tutors had been implementing Read Right the previous year and the district and Read Right expected them to have high implementation. In addition, Read Right classrooms were observed in each school for at least 120 minutes, during the week of October 12, 2009. Observations used an observation protocol designed to measure implementation of Read Right. Observers attended two days of training on how to use the observation protocol. During the first day of the week, evaluators observed at the same school in order to calibrate their observations. By the end of the day, the evaluators had at least 80 percent agreement on all sections of the observation. Analyses of observations showed that Read Right was implemented as outlined in the Read Right tutor manual.

Provide documentation (i.e., in terms of numbers) of fidelity of treatment implementation: 
Classroom observations conducted by evaluators revealed the following findings:

  • All the observations of Read Right met Read Right’s recommendation of five students per tutor. In fact, the average number of students per group was 3 with a range of 1 to 5.
  • On average during lessons on coached and excellent reading, 75% of class time was spent engaged in the Read Right activities: excellent reading, coached reading, or independent reading. Other activities included recording session information (each student tracks their own reading on a chart), waiting for instructions, off-task behaviors, or other non-instructional activities such as discussion of school activities.
  • During observations of excellent reading lessons, students’ reading success was judged 62 times (five times on average per students). Observers disagreed with these judgments in only 3 instances.
  • During coached reading, tutors intervened in students’ reading 41 times (an average of three times per student). In the majority of these interventions, the tutor asked the student to read the text again. Observers found fault with tutors’ interventions in only one instance.
  • The tutor clarified vocabulary 33 times (an average of three times per student). In only three instances, did the observer note that the vocabulary clarification was not done as specified in the Read Right manual, and in two instances the observer noted that the tutor missed an opportunity to clarify vocabulary.
  • In critical thinking lessons, students spent 73% of the time either reading or discussing questions about the reading. About two-thirds (65%) of the comprehension questions generated student discussion. For the rest of the discussion questions, all students arrived at the same answer without discussion. Other activities included recording session information (each student tracks their own reading on a chart), waiting for instructions, off-task behaviors, or other non-instructional activities such as discussion of school activities.

Measures Targeted: Data Unavailable

Measures Broader: Convincing Evidence

Targeted Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content

Not Applicable

 

 

 

 

Broader Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content

Gates MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test, Level 7/9, Forms S and T

Extended Scale Score
Form S 365-660

Form T 365-643

The reliability for subtest internal consistency was at or above 0.90 for the total tests and the subtests: form S- Comprehension 0.89 and form T- Comprehension 0.89. Alternate form correlations for the subtests ranged from 0.74 to 0.92. Stability correlations were calculated for several thousand students who participated in testing with form S for both fall and spring standardization administrations. The total test coefficient values were at or above 0.88 for all levels except Grade 12 (0.71).

– From the Mental Measures Yearbook

The purpose of Read Right is to improve students’ reading comprehension, and the Gates MacGinitie Reading Comprehension Test measures reading comprehension.

 

Number of Outcome Measures: 5 Reading

Mean ES - Targeted: Data Unavailable

Mean ES - Broader: 0.25*

Effect Size:

Targeted Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
  Not Applicable  

 Broader Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Reading GMRT – Whole Group 0.20*
Reading GMRT – School 1 0.46*
Reading GMRT – School 2 0.55**
Reading GMRT – School 3 0.21
Reading GMRT – School 4 -0.18

 

Key
*      p ≤ 0.05
**    p ≤ 0.01
***  p ≤ 0.001
–      Developer was unable to provide necessary data for NCII to calculate effect sizes
u      Effect size is based on unadjusted means
†      Effect size based on unadjusted means not reported due to lack of pretest group equivalency, and effect size based on adjusted means is not available

 

Visual Analysis (Single Subject Design): N/A

Disaggregated Data for Demographic Subgroups: Yes

Targeted Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
  Not Applicable  

 Broader Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Reading GMRT – African American 0.32
Reading GMRT – Latino 0.04
Reading GMRT – White 0.28
Reading GMRT – ELL -0.04
Reading GMRT – Special Education 0.07

 

Key
*      p ≤ 0.05
**    p ≤ 0.01
***  p ≤ 0.001
–      Developer was unable to provide necessary data for NCII to calculate effect sizes
u      Effect size is based on unadjusted means
†      Effect size based on unadjusted means not reported due to lack of pretest group equivalency, and effect size based on adjusted means is not available

 

Disaggregated Data for <20th Percentile: No

Administration Group Size: Small Group, (n=4-5)

Duration of Intervention: 40 minutes, 5 times a week, 12 weeks

Minimum Interventionist Requirements: Paraprofessional, 7 weeks of hands-on training, spread over 18 weeks

Reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA: No

What Works Clearinghouse Review

This program was not reviewed by What Works Clearinghouse.

 

Evidence for ESSA

This program was not reviewed by Evidence for ESSA.

 

Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review: 0 studies