READ 180

Study: Lang, Torgesen, Vogel, Chanter, Lefsky, et al. (2009)

Lang, L., Torgesen, J., Vogel, W., Chanter, C., Lefsky, E., & Petscher, Y. (2009). Exploring the relative effectiveness of reading interventions for high school students. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2(2), 149–175.

Descriptive Information

Usage

Acquisition and Cost

Program Specifications and Requirements

Training

READ 180 is a comprehensive system of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development to raise reading achievement of struggling readers.

READ 180 integrates principles of cognition and learning with practices for instructional effectiveness for older struggling readers.

The READ 180 instructional model facilitates a blended model of instruction with clear organization for the classroom.

READ 180 leverages adaptive technology to individualize instruction for students and provide powerful data for differentiation to teachers. Respectful of students of all ages, READ 180 is available in three Stages each with rigorous, age-appropriate content: Stage A (Grades 4—6), Stage B (Grades 6—8), and Stage C (Grades 9 and Up).

READ 180 is intended for use in grades four through high school. The program is designed for students with disabilities (particularly behavioral disabilities), English language learners, and any student at risk of academic failure. The academic areas of focus are reading (including phonological awareness, phonics/word study, comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, and spelling) and handwriting (including spelling, sentence construction, and planning and revising).

READ 180 is currently used in all 50 states and in over 40,000 classrooms. There are over one million active students’ licenses currently being used every day.

Where to Obtain:
Scholastic Inc.
557 Broadway
New York, NY 10012
Phone #: 877-234-READ
Website: http://www.hmhco.com/products/read-180

Cost: READ 180 pricing is determined by the number of students being served and number of classrooms set up. At the basic level, the cost is $43,000 for a Stage of READ 180 service of 60 student licenses. READ 180 can also be purchased for 30 students.

  • Initial cost per student for implementing program: Year 1: $716 per student (based on 60 students)
  • Replacement cost per student for subsequent use: Year 2 and Beyond: $29.95
  • Licenses are sold on a perpetual basis.
  • Volume discounts are available.

Included with Purchase of License:

  • Teacher Materials
  • Implementation Training
  • Leadership Materials
  • Leadership Training
  • Student Materials

READ 180 is designed for individual students and small groups. Class size for READ 180 should be 15-24 students, with three small groups of 5-8 students.

READ 180 takes 90 minutes per session with a recommended 5 sessions per week.

The program includes highly specified teacher manuals.

READ 180 is a blended instructional model, where a third of the class is on the computer during the small group rotations. Therefore, the number of computers depends on the number of students in the READ 180 classroom.

The program requires training for the instructor over the course of a few days. The teachers in READ 180 receive two full days of in-person training in order to implement the program.

Scholastic provides comprehensive professional development in person and online. Scholastic provides two-and-a-half days of in-person professional development with the purchase of a complete stage of READ 180.

  • Embedded professional development resources – a collection of professional development strategies is embedded within all of the teacher’s materials.
  • Additional resources exist for READ 180 teachers – Purchase of READ 180 includes a one-year subscription to the online course Best Practices in Reading Intervention.

The minimum qualifications of the instructor are that they are a professional, but the program does not assume the instructor has expertise in a given area.

Training manuals and materials are available by READ 180. The READ 180 training materials and teacher implementation guides are reviewed by Scholastic consultants and field-tested by consultants who work with teachers using READ 180 across the country.

Practitioners may obtain ongoing professional/technical support.

Additional Training Available:

  • Coordinator Training
  • Certified Support Specialist Training
  • In-Classroom Support
  • Scholastic Training Zone
  • Scholastic U

 

Participants: Unconvincing Evidence

Sample size: 599 students (307 program, 292 control)

Risk Status: Students were identified as “at risk for academic failure” based on prior years (SY 2005 – 2006) reading performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment (FCAT).  The study further categorized students as high risk (n=385), students scoring Level 1 Achievement, which indicated students were reading at a fourth-grade level; or moderate risk (n=812) students scoring Level 2 Achievement, which suggests students were reading between fourth- and sixth-grade level on the FCAT reading test. There are 5 levels of performance on the FCAT; levels 3 - 5 represent proficiency at or above grade-level performance.

Demographics:

  READ 180 Program SOAR Control p of chi square
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Grade level
Kindergarten          
Grade 1          
Grade 2          
Grade 3          
Grade 4          
Grade 5          
Grade 6          
Grade 7          
Grade 8          
Grade 9 307 100% 292 100%  
Grade 10          
Grade 11          
  Grade 12          
Mean Age          
Race-ethnicity
African-American 50 16% 66 23%  
American Indian          
Asian/Pacific Islander          
Hispanic 57 19% 55 19%  
White 172 56% 153 52%  
Other 28 9% 18 6%  
Socioeconomic status
Subsidized lunch 127 41% 115 39%  
No subsidized lunch 180 59% 177 61%  
Disability status
Speech-language impairments          
Learning disabilities          
Behavior disorders          
Intellectual disabilities          
Other          
Not identified with a disability          
ELL status
English language learner 1 < 1% 7 2%  
Not English language learner 306 > 99% 285 98%  
Gender
  Female 151 49% 155 53%  
  Male 156 51% 137 47%  

Training of Instructors: Teachers received ongoing coaching and feedback, related to fidelity and quality of implementation, provided by school reading coaches, a project coordinator, and Scholastic trained product / instructional coaches. In addition, monthly READ 180 support group meetings were held at school sites to address concerns, and provide ongoing support.

Design: Convincing Evidence

Did the study use random assignment?: Yes.

If not, was it a tenable quasi-experiment?: Not applicable.

If the study used random assignment, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures used as covariates or on pretest measures also used as outcomes?: Yes.

If not, at pretreatment, were the program and control groups not statistically significantly different and had a mean standardized difference that fell within 0.25 SD on measures central to the study (i.e., pretest measures also used as outcomes), and outcomes were analyzed to adjust for pretreatment differences? Not applicable.

Were the program and control groups demographically comparable at pretreatment?: Yes.

Was there attrition bias1? No.

Did the unit of analysis match the unit for random assignment (for randomized studies) or the assignment strategy (for quasi-experiments)?: Yes.

1 NCII follows guidance from the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) in determining attrition bias. The WWC model for determining bias based on a combination of differential and overall attrition rates can be found on pages 13-14 of this document: http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/reference_resources/wwc_procedures_v2_1_standards_handbook.pdf

 

Fidelity of Implementation: Partially Convincing Evidence

Describe when and how fidelity of treatment information was obtained:  Program implementation was monitored in-person 4 times during the school year 2006-2007.  Classroom observations were conducted by trained district reading specialists for each teacher, program expert, as well as school and district administrators. Observers used the READ 180 Implementation Checklist, Classroom Observation Protocol, and Implementation Level Worksheet to collect information on individual classroom implementations of READ 180. The following is a link to Scholastic’s READ 180 Research and Protocol tools, http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/research/pdfs/R180EE_Research_Protocol_tools.pdf

Provide documentation (i.e., in terms of numbers) of fidelity of treatment implementation: Results indicated high levels of fidelity to READ 180 program design, with at least 90% on-model indicators met for all teachers throughout the study.

Measures Targeted: Data Unavailable

Measures Broader: Convincing Evidence

Targeted Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content
Not applicable      


 

Broader Measure Score type and range of measure Reliability statistics Relevance to program instructional content
FCAT FCAT-DSS, 86 - 3,008
Scale Score, 100 - 500
9th Grade
Mean SS = 306.03
Mean SD = 54.01
Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.896
IRT rii = 0.922
General Reading Comprehension

 

 

Number of Outcome Measures: 1 Reading

Mean ES - Targeted: Data Unavailable

Mean ES - Broader: Data Unavailable

Effect Size:

Targeted Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
  Not Applicable  

 Broader Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Reading FCAT-DSS -

 

Key
*      p ≤ 0.05
**    p ≤ 0.01
***  p ≤ 0.001
–      Developer was unable to provide necessary data for NCII to calculate effect sizes
u      Effect size is based on unadjusted means
†      Effect size based on unadjusted means not reported due to lack of pretest group equivalency, and effect size based on adjusted means is not available

 

Visual Analysis (Single Subject Design): N/A

Disaggregated Data for Demographic Subgroups: Yes

Targeted Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
  Not Applicable  

 Broader Measures

Construct Measure Effect Size
Reading FCAT-DSS Moderate Risk Group 0.26**, u
Reading FCAT-DSS High Risk Group -0.20u

 

Key
*      p ≤ 0.05
**    p ≤ 0.01
***  p ≤ 0.001
–      Developer was unable to provide necessary data for NCII to calculate effect sizes
u      Effect size is based on unadjusted means
†      Effect size based on unadjusted means not reported due to lack of pretest group equivalency, and effect size based on adjusted means is not available

 

Disaggregated Data for <20th Percentile: No

Administration Group Size: Individual, Small Groups, (n=21)

Duration of Intervention: 90 minutes, 5 times a week, 36 weeks

Minimum Interventionist Requirements: Professional, 2 days of in-person training in order to implement the program

Reviewed by WWC or E-ESSA: WWC & E-ESSA

What Works Clearinghouse Review

Adolescent Literacy Evidence Protocol

EffectivenessREAD 180 was found to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and general literacy achievement for adolescent learners.

Studies Reviewed: 9 studies meet standards out of 39 studies total

Full Report

Students with Learning Disabilities Evidence Protocol

Effectiveness: No studies of READ 180® that fall within the scope of the Students with Learning Disabilities review protocol meet What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards. The lack of studies meeting WWC evidence standards means that, at this time, the WWC is unable to draw any conclusions based on research about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of READ 180® on students with learning disabilities.

Studies Reviewed: N/A

Full Report

 

Evidence for ESSA

Program Outcomes: Five studies of READ 180 met inclusion standards. Two of these had statistically significant positive effects in comparison to control groups, qualifying READ 180 for the ESSA “Strong” category. These were studies in Western Massachusetts (effect size =+0.18) and Milwaukee (effect size =+0.14). A Florida study found positive outcomes for students at moderate risk, but negative effects for students at high risk, with an average effect size of +0.12. Studies in Newark (NJ) and Memphis found no differences. The average effect size across all studies was a modest +0.08.

Number of Studies: 5

Average Effect Size: 0.08

Full Report

 

Other Research: Potentially Eligible for NCII Review: 5 studies

Interactive Inc. (2002). An efficacy study of READ 180, a print and electronic adaptive intervention program, grades 4 and above. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.
 

Scholastic Research. (2008). Desert Sands Unified School District, CA. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.
 

White, R. N., Haslam, M. B., & Hewes, G. M. (2006). Improving student literacy: READ 180 in the Phoenix Union High School District, 2003–04 and 2004–05. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates.
 

White, R. N., Williams, I. J., & Haslam, M. B. (2005). Performance of District 23 students participating in Scholastic READ 180. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates.
 

Woods, D. E. (2007). An investigation of the effects of a middle school reading intervention on school dropout rates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.